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  • Created by: SanaaM
  • Created on: 22-02-16 16:27
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  • P1.1 Visible Light & Solar System
    • 1.Modelling the Solar System
      • Two models were designed to represent our Solar System
        • Geocentric by Ptolemy - Earth was stationary and was orbited in circular orbits.
        • Heliocetric by Copernicus-Planets orbitted the Sun in circles. Planets further from the Sun moved slowly. Moon went around the Earth
        • Galileo's discovery of Jupiter's 4 moons proved the Geocentric model wrong (which was previously believed correct by the church)
    • 2. Observing the Universe
      • Introduction of     telescope     (17 century)
        • Telsecope gather more light = brighter and larger images.
        • Telescopes became bigger = easily see fainter/ distant objects
        • Arrival of Photography helps keep permanent record of observations
      • Solar System .. Sun, 8 planets, asteroid belt between mars and Jupiter (largest (Ceres), Kuiper belt and Proxima Century (Nearest Star)
    • 3. Reflection and Refraction
      • Laws of Reflection= angle of i and angle of r are equal.
      • All waves can be reflects - sound waves off buildings/walls and Dolphins/bats reflect Ultrasound to monitor their surroundings.
      • Refraction is the change in direction (due to change in speed) when light enters a different medium.
        • When entering a denser medium it bends towards normal
        • When entering less dense medium it bends away from normal
    • 4. Lenses
      • Converging Lens - Thickest in middle, brings rays to a point
      • Diverging Lens- thinnest in middle, scatters ray
      • Focal Point= where rays     meet            Focal legnth= distance        between        centre of lens and focal        point
      • Real Image= inverted and when object is at a distance
        • Virtual Image is when object is between lens and focal point so image is not formed on screen
    • 5. Telescopes
      • Refracting Telescopes - objective and eyepiece lens are both converging.
        • Converging lens focuses image of a distant object at focal point
        • Eyepiece magnifies the image
      • Reflecting Telescopes- made of concave mirror, a flat mirror and an eyepiece
        • Concave mirror forms image at focal point
        • Flat Mirror reflect rays toward eyepiece
        • Eyepiece magnifies the image
    • 6.UnderstandWaves
      • All waves transfer energy and not matter, create vibrations
      • Upper part of wave = peak and lower part of wave = trough
      • Wavelength is distance between peak/trough
      • Amplitude is maximum displacement of wave
      • Frequency of waves measure in Hz (complete vibration/sec)
    • 7.Two Types of Waves
      • Transverse Waves
        • EM Waves (light)
        • Vibrate at right angles to the direction the waves are going in.
        • S Waves (seismic)
        • Do not need a medium to travel (can travel through space)
      • Longitudinal Waves
        • Particles vibrate back and forth in parallel to the direction the wave is going
        • Need a medium to travel through (sound cannot travel through space)
        • P- Waves (Seismic)


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