Oxidation States

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  • Oxidation States
    • 'Oxidation is the loss of one or more electrons and reduction is the gain of one or more electrons'
      • OIL RIG
    • Rules for determining oxidation states
      • All elements in the elemental state have an oxidation state of 0
      • For simple ions (those only involving one atom) the oxidation state is the charge on the ion
      • The sum of oxidation states of all the atoms in a neutral molecule is 0
      • The sum of oxidation states of all atoms in an ion is the charge on the ion
      • Hydrogen has an oxidation state of +1 in nearly all it's compounds and ions (in metal hydrides it's oxidation state is -1)
      • Oxygen has an oxidation state of -2 in nearly all it's compounds and ions (except peroxides)
      • Some elements can have more than one oxidation state. In such cases, Roman Numerals are used as part of the compound name to indicate the oxidation state of the element concerned
    • Redox Reactions;
      • When an atom is oxidised, it's oxidation state increases (becomes more positive)
      • When an atom is reduced, it's oxidation state decreases (becomes less positive)

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