Flower structure and reproduction

Flower parts, male and female gamete production (mimicking shape of flower!!)

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  • Ovary
    • S T Y L E
      • stigma
        • FERTILISATION
          • The process where the male gamete fuses with the female gamete to produce a zygote/
          • compatible pollen grain lands on stigma, which produces a sugary solution for the grain to germinate, creating a pollen tube.
            • pollen tube grows down the style, with the tube nucleus leading. It produces digestive enzymes to do this.
              • the pollen tube lead, with two male nucleus behind, made by mitosis of the generative nucleus.
                • pollen tube grows through micropyle between the integuments, and into the embryo sac.
                  • the tube nucelus disintegrates and the pollen tube bursts, releasing two male nuclei.
                    • 1 male nucleus fuses with female nucleus to make a zygote. the next fuses with polar nuclei to make triploid endosperm.
                      • SPECIAL FLOWER DOUBLE FERTILISATION.
    • PETAL
      • brightly coloured and scented to attract insects for pollination
        • pollination- the transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of a plant of the same species.
          • self
            • pollen grains transferred from the anther to the stigma of the same flower/flower of the same plant,
            • results in inbreeding and reduction in variation
              • undesirable recessives come together
              • depends on crossing over and random assortment for variation
            • preserves good genomes
          • cross
            • the pollen is transferred to a stigma of a different flower on a different plant of the same species.
          • insect
            • depends on insects
              • they feed on nectar at the nectary (base of flower)
                • brush against anthers and pollen sticks
                  • pollen reaches stigma of the next plant the insect feeds from
            • brightly coloured and scented
              • nectar
                • anthers and stigma in flower
                  • small amounts of sticky pollen
          • wind
            • anthers hang outside the flower so wind can blow away small, light pollen
              • feathery stigmas hang outside the flowers and provide large surface area.
            • small green and inconspicous
              • no petals
                • no scent or nectar
    • PETAL
    • anther
      • produces haploid pollen grains
        • pollen grains have a hard resistant coat to avoid dessication
        • via meosis
        • haploid nucleus undergoes mitosis
          • to create a generative and tube nucleus
      • made up of four pollen sacs which later  dry out and split to release pollen
        • this is called dehiscence
    • anther
    • sepal
      • protects the flower when a bud
    • sepal
    • anther
    • anther
    • Ovules are made here
      • the mother cell undergoes meiosis to make a haploid embryo sac with 8 nuclei formed later by mitosis
    • DEVELOPMENT of FRUIT AND SEED
      • Integuments become seed coat, or testa.
      • ovary become fruit
      • ovule becomes seed
      • triploid endosperm becomes food source for germinating seed
      • zygote divided by mitosis to become the embryo with a plumule(shoot) and radicle (root) and two seed leaves/cotyledons.
  • S T Y L E
    • stigma
      • FERTILISATION
        • The process where the male gamete fuses with the female gamete to produce a zygote/
        • compatible pollen grain lands on stigma, which produces a sugary solution for the grain to germinate, creating a pollen tube.
          • pollen tube grows down the style, with the tube nucleus leading. It produces digestive enzymes to do this.
            • the pollen tube lead, with two male nucleus behind, made by mitosis of the generative nucleus.
              • pollen tube grows through micropyle between the integuments, and into the embryo sac.
                • the tube nucelus disintegrates and the pollen tube bursts, releasing two male nuclei.
                  • 1 male nucleus fuses with female nucleus to make a zygote. the next fuses with polar nuclei to make triploid endosperm.
                    • SPECIAL FLOWER DOUBLE FERTILISATION.
  • filament
    • has vascular tissues to transport nutrients, and also supports the anther
  • female part= CARPEL
  • male part = STAMEN
    • anther
      • produces haploid pollen grains
        • pollen grains have a hard resistant coat to avoid dessication
        • via meosis
        • haploid nucleus undergoes mitosis
          • to create a generative and tube nucleus
      • made up of four pollen sacs which later  dry out and split to release pollen
        • this is called dehiscence
    • filament
      • has vascular tissues to transport nutrients, and also supports the anther
  • anthers and stigma are outside and large and feathery
    • large quantities of small, light smooth pollen
    • no scent or nectar
  • POLLINATION

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