Organisation

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  • Organisation
    • Digestion
      • Enzymes
        • Biological catalysts and protein molecules
        • Space within the enzyme called the active site
        • Each enzyme catalyses a specific reaction
          • The chemical that reacts is called a substrate and this fits into the active site
            • Space within the enzyme called the active site
        • Work best at optimum temperature and pH
          • If these go beyond the optimum, the enzyme becomes denatured and stops working as the substrate no longer fits into active site
      • Enzymes in digestion
        • Protease
          • Produced in stomach, pancreas and small intestine
          • Breaks down protiens into amino acids
        • Lipase
          • Produced in pancreas and small intestine
          • Breaks down lipids into fatty acids and glycerol
        • Amylase
          • Produced in salivary glands and Pancreas
          • Breaks down starch into sugar
      • Bile
        • A liquid made in liver and stored in  gall bladder
        • Alkaline to neutralise HCL
        • Emulsifies fat giving enzymes a larger surface area to act on
    • Blood and circulation
      • Blood
        • Blood is a tissue  mad of plasma
        • Red blood cells
          • biconcave discs-large surface area
          • No nucleus
          • Contain  hemoglobin which binds to the oxygen cells to transport it from lungs to tissues and cells
        • White blood cells
          • Help to protect body against infection
          • Can change shape so can engulf microorganisms
        • Platelets
          • Help to clot the blood preventing bleeding out
          • Fragments of cells
      • Blood vessels
        • Arteries
          • Take blood from heart to organs
          • Thick walls made from muscle and elastic fibres
        • Veins
          • Take blood from organs to heart
          • Thinner walls and valves to prevent backflow
        • Cappilaries
          • Allows substances needed by cells to pass out of blood
          • Allows substances produced by cells to pass into blood
          • Thin,narrow walls
      • The heart
        • Four chambers
          • Left and right Atria
            • The natural resting heart rate is controlled by a group of cells in the right atrium
          • Left and right ventricles
        • Blood enters heart through the aria
          • The atria contract, fforcing blood into ventricles
            • The ventricles contract forcing blood out of the heart
        • Valves make sure the blood flows in the right direction
      • Gaseous exchange
        • Heart sends blood to lungs via pulmonary artery
          • Air obtained by breathing reaches lungs through trachea
            • Trachea divides into 2 tubes- bronchi
              • Bronchi divide to form bronchioles
                • Branches divide until they end up air sacks called aveoli
                  • Large surface area
                  • Rich Blood supply
                  • Close to Blood capillaries so distance for gas to diffuse is small
                  • Blood is taken back to the lungs via pulmonary vein
    • Non-communicable diseases
      • Health and disease
        • Good health is a state of physical and mental wellbeing
      • Non- communicable diseases can't be spread between organisms
      • Risk factors
        • Things that make it more likely for someone to develop a disease
        • Aspects of persons lifestyle
          • Scientists need to look for a causal mechanism to prove risk factors
        • Substances in persons body or enviroment
          • Scientists need to look for a causal mechanism to prove risk factors
      • Coronary heart disease
        • Layers of fatty material build up in coronary arteries and narrow them
        • Stents can ope arteries, stains can slow down the rate at which fat builds up
      • Cancer
        • There are genetic and lifestyle risk factors
        • Caused by uncontrolled cell division resulting in masses of cells called tumors
          • There are benign tumors (don't spread) and malignant tumors (Spread in blood to different body parts
    • Transport in plants
      • Epidermis
        • Covers and protects outer surfaces
      • Palisade mesophyll
        • Main site of photosynthesis
      • Spongy mesophyll
        • Allows gas to diffuse through leaf
      • Xylem Vessels
        • Supports plant and transports water and minerals
      • Phloem vessels
        • Transports dissolved food materials
      • Meristem tissue
        • Produces new cells for growth
      • Transipartion
        • Water enters pant through osmosis
          • Water carried up to xylem vessels, roots, stems and leaves
            • At leaves water evaporates or diffueses through stomata
              • Loss of water is called transpiration
                • Increase in temperature will increase rate of transpiration
                • Faster air flow will increase rate
                • Increased light intensity increases rate
                • Increase in humidity will decrease rate

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