Organic Chemistry

CCEA revised Unit 2 chapter15-16

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  • Created by: Abigail
  • Created on: 14-06-13 18:35
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  • Organic Chemistry
    • Fossil Fuels
      • Formed from dead plants and animals
      • non- renewable- cannot be replaced in a human lifetime and will eventually run out
      • Spillage of crude oil causes environmental problems: destroys habitats, harms diving birds, creates eyesores
    • Fractional distillation of crude oil
      • Fractionating column
        • 1. refinery gas 2. petrol 3. naphtha 4. kerosene 5. diesel oil 6. fuel oil and lubricating oil
        • As go down:  increasing boiling point increasing number of carbon atoms increasing size of hydrocarbons
      • Crude oil enters at bottom as hot gaseous mixture
      • bubble caps allow gases to move upwards
      • Uses of fractions
        • refinery gas = bottled gases
        • Petrol= vehicle fuel
        • Naphtha=chemicals and plastics
        • diesel oil= large vehicle fuel
        • Fuel oil and lubricating oil=fuel for ships and lubricating
        • Bitumen= road tar
    • Homologous series
      • Alkanes
        • CnH2n+2
        • gases
        • staurated
      • Alkenes
        • CnH2n
        • unsaturates
        • gases
      • Alcohols
        • CnH2n+1OH
        • liquids
      • Carboxylic Acids
        • CnH2n+1COOH
        • liquids
    • Combustion
      • Reaction of a fuel with oxygen producing oxides and releasing heat
      • Complete combustion= when a fuel burns in plentiful supply of oxygen/air to form carbon dioxide and water releasing heat
      • Incomplete combustion= when a fuel burns in limited supply of oxygen/air  to form carbon monoxide, and sometimes soot (carbon), and water releasing heat
      • Alcohols burn with a blue flame
    • Greenhouse Effect
      • increased levels of carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide in atmosphere
      • global warming, rising sea levels, melting of polar ice caps, climate change
      • minimised by: alternative energy sources, clean fuels, 'cleaner' fuels
    • Acid Rain
      • S+O2 -> SO2
      • SO2 + H2O -> H2SO4
      • defoliates trees, pollutes rivers, destroys limestone structues
      • minimised by: burning less fossil fuels, removing sulfur from fuels, treating emissions, using catalytic converters in car exhaust systems
    • Addition Polymerisation
      • adding molecules  together to form a polymer as the only product-the long molecule is the polymer
      • Monomer has a C=C double bond and is  an alkene
      • uses of polymers: polythene for bags and bottles-easily coloured and moulded. PVC for door and window frames-coloured and molded but more durable
    • Fermenation
      • ethanol by fermenation of sugars
    • Carboxylic Acids
      • sodium carbonate
        • bubbles of gas,solid disappears, colourless solution formed
        • Sodium salt, water, carbon dioxide formed
      • Magnesium
        • bubbles of gas, heat released, metal dissapears, colourless solution
        • magnesium salt, hydrogen
      • Sodium hydroxide
        • heat released, solution remains colourless
        • sodium salt, water


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