Organic chemistry

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  • Organic chemistry
    • Homologous series
      • Group of smiliar compounds
        • Similar molecular structure
        • Similiar chemical properties
        • Physical properties change - increase in boiling point as the size of the molecule increases.
      • Alkanes/Alkenes
        • Only contain hydrogen/carbon
        • Alkenes have at least one double bond
      • Alochols
        • (OH) functional group
        • Meth = one C atom, Eth = two C atoms, Prop = three C atoms
      • Carboxylic acids
        • COOH functional group
          • COOH contains double bond between C and O
        • Names end in anoic acid
    • Production of ethanol
      • Fermention is the process of using yeast to turn carbs(sugars) into alcohol
        • Carbs can come from any source (sugar cane etc...)
        • Yeast cells contain an enzyme to speed up the reaction
        • Conditions
          • Anerobic conditions must be maintained to prevent convertion of ethanol into ethanoic acid
          • Concentration of ethanol is between 10-20%
        • Pro= renewable energy  source, con= low quality of ethanol
      • Fractional distillation is used to concentrate ethanol
        • To make a concentration of above 20%
        • Ethanol has a lower boiling point than water so evaporates first and is condensed in the liebig condeser
    • Production and issues of ethanol
      • Ethanol can be produced by reacting steam with ethene
        • Cheap process, high quality BUT non-renewable
      • Too much alcohol is bad for the body
        • Less inhibited - reduces activity of the nervous system, dehydration and liver disease
      • Too much alcohol is bad for society
        • Loutish behavior, irresponsible sexual behavior, addicts, drink driving leading to death, high economic costs
    • Ethene and Ethanoic acid
      • Ethanol can be dehydrated over a hot aluminium oxide catalyst to create ethene
      • Ethanoic acid is in vinegar
        • Created by oxidizing ethanol
        • Used in flavourings and preserving foods
        • Salts form in a reaction are called ethanoates
    • Esters
      • Functional group -COO-
      • Formed by an alcohol reacting with a carboxylic acid
        • Sulphuric acid catalyst is usually used
      • Uses of esters
        • Flavourings and perfumes
        • Polyesters
          • Recycled into fleece
        • Soap
          • Ester reacting with an alkali= soap
            • Fat breaks down into glycerol and long chain carboxylic acids and the acids react with the alkali
              • Soaps are just long chain carboxylic acids
          • Process
            • In water, soap molecules form anions with hydrophobic and hydrophilic part
              • Tail is hydrophobic and attracted to grease
                • Head is hydrophilic and dissolves in water
                  • Soap anions let water and oil mix, allowing droplets to form and be lifted out.
                    • In water, soap molecules form anions with hydrophobic and hydrophilic part
                      • Tail is hydrophobic and attracted to grease
                        • Head is hydrophilic and dissolves in water
                          • Soap anions let water and oil mix, allowing droplets to form and be lifted out.
        • E.g fat/oil
        • Vegetables oils are hydrogenated for the food industry
          • Less double bonds = solid
            • Polyunsaturated vegetable oils are hydrogenated to make margerine
              • Esters
                • Functional group -COO-
                • Formed by an alcohol reacting with a carboxylic acid
                  • Sulphuric acid catalyst is usually used
                • Uses of esters
                  • Flavourings and perfumes
                  • Polyesters
                    • Recycled into fleece
                  • Soap
                    • Ester reacting with an alkali= soap
                      • Fat breaks down into glycerol and long chain carboxylic acids and the acids react with the alkali
                        • Soaps are just long chain carboxylic acids
                    • Process
                  • E.g fat/oil
                  • Vegetables oils are hydrogenated for the food industry
                    • Less double bonds = solid
                      • Polyunsaturated vegetable oils are hydrogenated to make margerine
        • Ethyl ethanoate is formed by reacting ethanol with ethanoic acid

          Comments

          E.H Jane

          Thanks a lot :D

          Really useful :)

          (y)

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