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  • Organic
    • Alkanes
      • Boiling points:
        • increases as they get more carbon atoms in their formula.
        • the more atoms there are the greater the intermolecular van der Waals' forces
        • greater intermolecular forces= more energy requireed to separate the molecules
        • the more energy required, the higher the boiling point.
        • straight chains have higher surface areas giving greater molecular interaction.
          • branched molecules are more compact and have less intermolecular attraction
            • the lower the intermolecular forces, the lower the boiling poin
      • free radicals
        • reactive species (atoms or groups) possessing an unpaired electron
        • formed during the reaction between chlorine and methane
        • formed during thermal cracking
        • formed by homolytic fission (homolysis) of covalent bonds.
          • Homolytic fission: the breaking of a covalent bond with one of the bonded electrons going to each atom, forming two radicals.
      • A single bond is made up of a sigma bond. this has a direct overlap of orbitals.
    • Alkenes
      • Alkenes are unsaturated meaning they have an opportunity to create more bonds from the double bond.
      • A double bond is made up of a sigma bond and a pi bond
      • A pi bond overalps above and below the plane and has less electron density and the electrons are more exposed.
      • Electrophilic addition is the name of the mechanism for the addition reaction for alkenes to form a saturated compound.
        • electrophile: an atom or group of atoms that is attracted to an electron-rich centre, where it accepts a pair of electrons.
        • Nucleophile: an atom or group of atoms that is attracted to an electron-deficient carbon atom, where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.
    • Structural isomer: compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae.


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