OCD

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  • Created by: Ellie504
  • Created on: 19-05-16 20:50
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  • Biological Approach (Genetic
    • Genotype for OCD, then Phenotype later in life.
    • Pauls et al (1995) - OCD incidence much higher if family member with OCD.
    • Rasmussen and Tsang (1986) - Concordance rate of 7-% in MZ twins.
    • Seems to run in families.
    • OCD
      • Behavioural Theory
        • Focus on explaining compulsions.
          • Obsessions are mental processes an cannot be empirically understood.
        • Mowrer's two process theory can be used - CC and OC
          • CC explains how anxiety becomes associated with another stimulus.
            • Compulsion caused by OC, notices by chance the reduction of axniety they feel after performing a certain task.
              • This anxiety is a form of negative reinforcement
        • Rachman and Hodgson - exposing to obsessive thoughts increasings anxiety, performing compulsions reduce anxiety.
        • Superstition Hypothesis - chance behaviour paired with a reinforcer.
        • Evaluations
          • Can explain cause and maintenance.
          • Led to succesful treatments
            • Systematic Desensitisat-ion - Wolpe
              • 1. Relaxation
              • 2. Gradual exposure - hierarchy of fear.
              • 3. Counter conditioning
              • Evaluations
                • Quick, clearly measurable and effective - 75%
                • Ethical issues, too simplistic, may not work in real life?
          • Cannot explain the obsession as well.
      • PsychD Approach
        • Anal fixiation due to inappropriate toilet training.
        • Dominant ID = Obsessive thoughts
        • Dominant Super-ego = obsessive behaviour
        • Evaluations
          • Difficult to scientifically test the unconscious mind
          • Therapiies are not particulalry effective
            • D.A + F.A
          • Based on case study - hard to generalise
        • Salzman (1995) - OCD is as a result of repressed trauma.
        • Good contribution from Freud
  • Cognitive Approach
    • Cognitive Bias - Hypervigilant attention system.
    • Rachman (1997) - catastrophic misinterpretation of thought.
    • Sher (1989) - OCD sufferers have poor memory for actions
    • Evaluations
      • Useful when explaining Ind. Differences.
      • Treatments are succesful
        • Challenge faulty thinking, replace...
        • Cognitive restructuring
        • Cognitive rehearsal
        • CBT - usually results in behaviour change.
        • Difficult to establish cause and effect
      • No explanation to origins of cog bias.
  • Biological Approach (Neuro-Chemical)
    • Lack of Serotonin, neural communicat-ion impaired.
    • OCD only responds to drug therapies that affect Serotonin levels.
    • Evaluations
      • Biological Approach (Genetic
        • Genotype for OCD, then Phenotype later in life.
        • Pauls et al (1995) - OCD incidence much higher if family member with OCD.
        • Rasmussen and Tsang (1986) - Concordance rate of 7-% in MZ twins.
        • Seems to run in families.
        • OCD
          • Behavioural Theory
            • Focus on explaining compulsions.
              • Obsessions are mental processes an cannot be empirically understood.
            • Mowrer's two process theory can be used - CC and OC
              • CC explains how anxiety becomes associated with another stimulus.
                • Compulsion caused by OC, notices by chance the reduction of axniety they feel after performing a certain task.
                  • This anxiety is a form of negative reinforcement
            • Rachman and Hodgson - exposing to obsessive thoughts increasings anxiety, performing compulsions reduce anxiety.
            • Superstition Hypothesis - chance behaviour paired with a reinforcer.
            • Evaluations
              • Can explain cause and maintenance.
              • Led to succesful treatments
                • Systematic Desensitisat-ion - Wolpe
                  • 1. Relaxation
                  • 2. Gradual exposure - hierarchy of fear.
                  • 3. Counter conditioning
                  • Evaluations
                    • Quick, clearly measurable and effective - 75%
                    • Ethical issues, too simplistic, may not work in real life?
              • Cannot explain the obsession as well.
          • PsychD Approach
            • Anal fixiation due to inappropriate toilet training.
            • Dominant ID = Obsessive thoughts
            • Dominant Super-ego = obsessive behaviour
            • Evaluations
              • Difficult to scientifically test the unconscious mind
              • Therapiies are not particulalry effective
                • D.A + F.A
              • Based on case study - hard to generalise
            • Salzman (1995) - OCD is as a result of repressed trauma.
            • Good contribution from Freud
      • Very scientific, empirical research.
      • Very credible, supports psychology as a science.
      • Theory has led to drug therapies with SSRI's - effective
      • Reductionist, reduces to components of genes. - Oversimplified
      • Fails to consider environment.
      • Deterministic - dehumanizing.

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