Nucleic acids

This is a discription of the structure and funtions nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).

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  • Created by: Owain
  • Created on: 02-01-14 15:21
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  • Nucleic Acids
    • DNA
      • The Pentose sugar is called DEOXYRIBOSE
        • Deoxyribose contains one less oxygen atom than Ribose
      • The nucleic acids are Adenine, Thymine, Guanine and Cytosine
        • Thymine, Uracil and Cytosine are pyrimidines which contain only a single ring structure.
          • The nucleic acids Adenine, Uracil, Guanine and Cytosine
            • Adenine and Guanine a purines which are made up of a 2 ring structure
              • The nucleic acids are Adenine, Thymine, Guanine and Cytosine
                • Thymine, Uracil and Cytosine are pyrimidines which contain only a single ring structure.
                  • The nucleic acids Adenine, Uracil, Guanine and Cytosine
                    • Adenine and Guanine a purines which are made up of a 2 ring structure
            • They also contain a phosphate group
            • Structure of DNA
              • Consists of 2 chains of polynucleotides coiled around each other to form a double helix
              • In DNA the 2 helices are linked together by hydrogen bonds between the bases
              • There are 10 bases between each turn of the helix
              • Adenine pairs up with Thymine
                • The pairs are complementary to each other
                  • Guanine pairs up with Cytosine
              • Guanine pairs up with Cytosine
              • Functions of DNA
                • To carry the information for the order of amino acids in a protein
                • To replicate in dividing cells
          • RNA
            • The pentose sugar is called RIBOSE
              • Deoxyribose contains one less oxygen atom than Ribose
            • They also contain a phosphate group
            • The structure of RNA
              • RNA is a single stranded polymer made up of nucleotides
              • There are 3 types of RNA
                • Messenger RNA(mRNA)
                  • It is involved with protein synthesis
                  • It is a long stranded molecule formed into a helix
                  • It carries the genetic code for assembling proteins from the DNA  in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where the proteins are made
                  • It is made on the nucleus
                • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
                  • Ribosomes are made up of Ribosomal RNA and protein
                  • It is a large molecule made up of single and double stranded helces
                • Transfer RNA (tRNA)
                  • This is a small single stranded molecule shaped like a clover leaf
                  • It carries the amino acids to the ribosomes so that protein molecules can be assembled.
                  • One end of the chain always ends in cytosine-cytosine-adenine.
                  • The other end of the molecule there is a sequence of 3 bases called ANTICODON
          • Nucleotides
            • The Pentose sugar, the nucleic acid and the phosphate group make up a nucleotide
            • The 3 subunits form a nucleotide by condensation reactions
            • 2 nucleotides react again to form a Dineulceotide and then more will react together to form a Polynucleotide
            • Picture of a nucleotide

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