non verbal communication

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  • Non-verbal and verbal   communication
    • cultural differences
      • Hall (1966)-found that cultures with high sensory contact personal distances are much closer than in low sensory countries.
    • Personal space
      • Gender differences
        • Fisher and Byrne (1975) arranged for a confederate to invade the space of a person while alone in a library.
          • Male participants disliked the invader who sat opposite, but did not mind when the invader sat by them.
            • Female participants disliked the invader sitting next to them, but did not mind the invader sitting opposite
              • Fisher and Byrne (1975) arranged for a confederate to invade the space of a person while alone in a library.
                • Male participants disliked the invader who sat opposite, but did not mind when the invader sat by them.
                  • Female participants disliked the invader sitting next to them, but did not mind the invader sitting opposite
        • Felipe and Sommer (1966)- Invasion of personal space.
          • Conducted two field experiments. They conducted a study in a library using people who ere sitting by themselves. Results showed that whemn an "invader" sat in the next chair and moved it closer, 70% of the participants had left their seats after 30 mins.
      • Facial expressions
        • Sackheim (1978) conducted research into how facial expressions are perceived and he suggested that the expressions displayed on the left hemisphere of the face are perceived more strongly
      • Body language-
        • Sabin and Hardyk (1953) suggest there are a number of postures that have a fairly clear meaning for us.

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