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  • Osmosis
    • is the diffusion of water from a dilute to a more concentrated solution through a partially permeable membrane
      • Differences in the concentration of the solutions inside and outside of the cell cause water or move into or out of the cell by osmosis
        • Terms
          • Isotonic
            • This means that there is the same amount of water
              • Eg. The cell was isotonic to the surrounding solution -  This means that there is an equal amount of water in the cell and the in the surrounding solution
          • Hypertonic
            • This means there is less water - it is a comparative word
              • Eg. The cell was Hypertonic to the surrounding solution -  This means that there is less water in the cell than the surrounding solution.
              • A way to remember this is that if you eat a lot of sugar you go HYPER - if a solution has a lot of sugar in it ,it will have less water. hence HYPERtonic
          • Plasmolysis
            • This means that most of the water has left the cell and the cell's protoplasm peals away form the cell wall meaning that the cell is flaccid
          • Hypotonic
            • this means that there is more water - it is a comparative word
              • Eg. The cell was hypotonic to the surrounding solution, meaning that the cell had a higher water concentration to the surrounding solution
              • A way to remember this is that the word HYPOtonic has the word hypo in it and hypo's like water!
    • Osmosis in plant and animal cells
      • Plant cells walls are very strong and do not stretch
        • This means that when a plant is full of water - or TURGID - the cell wall is pushing against the contents of the cell and the entire structure of the cell is very stiff or firm.
        • If the cell loses water it loses its rigidity and becomes FLACCID or PLASMOLYSED -  this means that the plant will no longer be surported and will wilt


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