Middle Ages

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  • Created by: Musa M
  • Created on: 02-06-13 12:53
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  • Middle Ages
    • Introduction
      • After AD 500 the Roman Empire collapsed.
        • The Roman army was needed back in Rome to fight and so they left and went back to Rome.
        • It was dangerous to travel as all roads led to Rome.
          • Communication was limited which meant that there was fewer opportunities for doctors to learn and train.
      • Developments and knowledge was lost in the west.
        • roman buildings were lost.
        • Public health systems were gone.
        • Libraries and medical books were gone.
      • After  Romans left Britain they went back to their ways before Rome was there.
        • This meant that knowledge regressed instead of progressing.
          • Known as the Dark Ages.
            • During this period Britain experienced a lot of invasions, such as Saxons and the  Vikings.
              • They mostly took what they wanted and destroyed what they didn't.
                • This meant that a lot of Roman Buildings were destroyed.
      • In 1066 the Norman invaded England and brought some stability.
        • Some improvements were made but only for the wealthy.
          • Wealthy such as Lords and Barons, improved to use stone and built castles and manor houses.
        • Peasants usually lived in small house with only one room for the family
          • They usually worked in the fields in all weathers.
    • Medieval Towns/York
      • The towns were over populated which meant that disease spread easily.
      • They didn't have sewers.
      • Garbage and human waste was thrown onto the streets meaning that they were filthy.
      • Were uneducated in how to take care of themselves, and how to keep clean.
    • Medieval Monasteries
      • They were more about caring rather than curing.
        • People went to the hospital to die.
          • Hospitals provided a place where the sick could be cared for.
      • Whilst the towns everyone was cramped, the monasteries were more spaced out for the sick and the healthy
      • They were educated and could read Galen's theories
      • They had simple public health systems, like running sewers, fresh running water and they made it compulsory to take four baths per year.
    • Islam and Christianity
      • After the Normans invaded in 1066 the Church grew stronger and  richer.
        • Priests were central in poor people's life, they were the only educated that talked to peasants.
        • They were ignorant and blamed God for everything they couldn't explain.
          • Believed that disease and illness were punishments from God.
        • They were the only people that had the knowledge on how to read and write.
          • They controlled education.
            • Medical schools which were established in this period were usually ran by the Church.
      • In 1258  Baghdad was destroyed and lots of ancient knowledge made it's way back to the west.
      • They banned dissection.
        • Believed in Galen's teachings because they fit in with the Church's teachings.
      • They also believed that disease could be sent by God sin they prayed and repented sins to try and cure illnesses.
  • Medieval Monasteries
    • They were more about caring rather than curing.
      • People went to the hospital to die.
        • Hospitals provided a place where the sick could be cared for.
    • Whilst the towns everyone was cramped, the monasteries were more spaced out for the sick and the healthy
    • They were educated and could read Galen's theories
    • They had simple public health systems, like running sewers, fresh running water and they made it compulsory to take four baths per year.
  • Black Death
    • Middle Ages
      • Introduction
        • After AD 500 the Roman Empire collapsed.
          • The Roman army was needed back in Rome to fight and so they left and went back to Rome.
          • It was dangerous to travel as all roads led to Rome.
            • Communication was limited which meant that there was fewer opportunities for doctors to learn and train.
        • Developments and knowledge was lost in the west.
          • roman buildings were lost.
          • Public health systems were gone.
          • Libraries and medical books were gone.
        • After  Romans left Britain they went back to their ways before Rome was there.
          • This meant that knowledge regressed instead of progressing.
            • Known as the Dark Ages.
              • During this period Britain experienced a lot of invasions, such as Saxons and the  Vikings.
                • They mostly took what they wanted and destroyed what they didn't.
                  • This meant that a lot of Roman Buildings were destroyed.
        • In 1066 the Norman invaded England and brought some stability.
          • Some improvements were made but only for the wealthy.
            • Wealthy such as Lords and Barons, improved to use stone and built castles and manor houses.
          • Peasants usually lived in small house with only one room for the family
            • They usually worked in the fields in all weathers.
      • Medieval Towns/York
        • The towns were over populated which meant that disease spread easily.
        • They didn't have sewers.
        • Garbage and human waste was thrown onto the streets meaning that they were filthy.
        • Were uneducated in how to take care of themselves, and how to keep clean.
      • Islam and Christianity
        • After the Normans invaded in 1066 the Church grew stronger and  richer.
          • Priests were central in poor people's life, they were the only educated that talked to peasants.
          • They were ignorant and blamed God for everything they couldn't explain.
            • Believed that disease and illness were punishments from God.
          • They were the only people that had the knowledge on how to read and write.
            • They controlled education.
              • Medical schools which were established in this period were usually ran by the Church.
        • In 1258  Baghdad was destroyed and lots of ancient knowledge made it's way back to the west.
        • They banned dissection.
          • Believed in Galen's teachings because they fit in with the Church's teachings.
        • They also believed that disease could be sent by God sin they prayed and repented sins to try and cure illnesses.
    • People believed that frogs, cats, dogs,  bad smells and bad and caused the Black Death.
    • They didn't understand that it was caused by flees on rats, bad housing and that it was brought to England on a boat.
    • There were two types of the disease. The Bubonic and the Pneumonic.
      • The Bubonic spread around the blood and Bubons would appear in necks, under the arms and at the crease of the leg.
      • The pneumonic was air borne from germs in the air and you would die within a day.
    • It arrived in  England in 1348 from trading ships that traveled from Europe and China.
    • Spread rapidly due to  fleas living on rats and the conditions that people lived in.
    • Killed 40% of England's reputation.
  • Surgery and Anatomy
    • Banned Dissection so they didn't have much knowledge on the anatomy of the body.
    • Wine was used as an anapestic to numb pain during surgery.
    • By  1300 there was some limited dissection taking place in medical schools.
      • The professor would dissect with an instant using Galen's books. If the dissection didn't match Galen's then it was seen to be wrong.
  • Treatments
    • The rich believed that astrology effected your health.
    • They were superstitious, used charms and spells.
    • They used herbal remedies.
    • Blood letting was done when it was believed that the patient was sick due to too much blood in her body.
      • Veins were cut if a large amount was needed to be taken out. Leeches were used if it's a small amount.
  • Medicine
    • Urine was now analysed for the first time.
  • Doctors couldn't treat it due to the lack of knowledge and technology.
    • Black Death
      • People believed that frogs, cats, dogs,  bad smells and bad and caused the Black Death.
      • They didn't understand that it was caused by flees on rats, bad housing and that it was brought to England on a boat.
      • There were two types of the disease. The Bubonic and the Pneumonic.
        • The Bubonic spread around the blood and Bubons would appear in necks, under the arms and at the crease of the leg.
        • The pneumonic was air borne from germs in the air and you would die within a day.
      • It arrived in  England in 1348 from trading ships that traveled from Europe and China.
      • Spread rapidly due to  fleas living on rats and the conditions that people lived in.
      • Killed 40% of England's reputation.
  • There was barber surgeons, who weren't trained, but often gained skill from practice on the battle field.
    • Surgery and Anatomy
      • Banned Dissection so they didn't have much knowledge on the anatomy of the body.
      • Wine was used as an anapestic to numb pain during surgery.
      • By  1300 there was some limited dissection taking place in medical schools.
        • The professor would dissect with an instant using Galen's books. If the dissection didn't match Galen's then it was seen to be wrong.
  • Usually worked on the poor in towns.
    • There was barber surgeons, who weren't trained, but often gained skill from practice on the battle field.
    • There were also Skilled surgeons who were trained in medical schools and only worked on the rich.
      • The problems with surgery was with pain, infection and blood loss.
        • Only successful surgery that were done was the sorts of setting bones and the removal of cataracts.
          • They developed a simple understanding of the human bodies from treating wounds on battlefields.
            • The development of surgery relied on the fact that weapons on the battlefield improved.
              • Medical ideas were written down which allowed them to developed.
                • Islam encourages learning.
                  • Arab doctors followed the teachings of Hippocrates.
                    • They observed and recorded.
                      • Arab doctors followed the teachings of Hippocrates.
                      • Rhazes set up a hospital in Bahgdad.
                        • He also wrote over 200 books.
                      • Avicenna also wrote lots of books and credited in bringing Greek learning books back to western Europe.
                        • They still used natural treatments.
                          • Arab doctors developed techniques such as distillation to prepare drugs and antiseptics.
                            • He was a pharmacist who used drugs that were used in operations.
                              • He also wrote over 200 books.
                            • His books were used until 1600.
                              • He helped  professionalize medicine.
                                • They translated Hippocrates and Galen's books into Arabic.

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