Metals and their uses

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  • Metals and their uses
    • Extracting metals
      • Metals are usually foud in the Earth`s crust. They are often combined chemically with other elements such as oxygen
      • An ore contains enough metal to make it worth extracting the  metal
      • The methord we use to extract a metal depends on its reactivity
      • Unreactive metals are found in the Earth as the metal
      • The oxides of metals less reactive than carbon can be reduced using carbon
    • Iron and steels
      • Iron oxide is reduced in a blast furnace to make iron
      • Iron from the blast furnace os too brittle for many uses
      • Most iron is conserved into alloys called steels
      • Steels contain carefully controlled quanties of carbon and other elements
    • Aluminium and titanium
      • Aluminium and titanium resist corrosion. They also have low densities compared with other strong metals
      • Aluminium and titanium can not be extracted from thweir oxides using carbon
      • Aluminium and titanim are expensive because extracting them involes many stages and requires large amounts of energy
    • Extracting copper
      • Most copper is extracted from copper-rich ores by smelting
      • Copper can be purified by electrolysis
      • Bioleaching and phytomining are new ways to extract copper from low-grade ores.
      • Copper can be obtained from solutions of copper salts by displacment or electrolysis
    • Useful metals
      • The transition metals are found in the central block of the periodic table
      • Transition metals have properties that make them useful for building and making things
      • Most of the metals we use are alloys
    • Metallic issues
      • There are social, economic and enviromental issues associated with exploiting metal ores
      • Recycling save energy and limited resources
      • There are drawbacks as well as benefits from the use of metals in structures


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