Memory: Eyewitness Testimony (2)

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  • Created by: neleanor
  • Created on: 04-05-15 14:38
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  • Memory: Eyewitness Testimony (2)
    • Anxiety
      • Loftus & Burns (1979)
        • Effects of anxiety
        • Sat outside a lad 'over-hearing' a discussion within
          • Condition 1: friendly, about equipment failure, man with greasy hands came out holding a pen
          • Condition 2: hostile, breaking glass and overturning furniture, man came out with knife covered in blood
          • Given 50 photos and asked to identify the man
        • Condition 1 more accurate (49%) than condition 2 (33%)
          • Weapon had created anxiety so focus on the knife rather than the person
            • High stress led to less accurate recall
        • EVALUATION
          • Lab experiment
            • No extraneous variables BUT demand characteristics
            • lacks ecological validity -> artificial setting -> can't generalise
      • Christianson & Hubinette (1993)
        • Effects of anxiety
        • Survey of 110 witnesses of bank robberies, some bystanders some personally threatened
        • Victims had higher stress levels and more accurate recall than bystanders
          • In real events high stress leads to more anxiety
        • EVALUATION
          • Natural experiment -> high ecological validity -> can generalise
      • Yerkes-Dodson Curve
        • Certain level of stress when recall is most accurate, higher or lower than that and it gets worse
      • Yuille & Cutshall (1986)
        • Effects of anxiety and misleading questions on anxiety
        • 13 witness to robbery re-interviewed five months after event
        • Recall accurate and misleading questions had no effect
        • EVALUATION
          • Natural experiment -> high ecological validity -> can generalise
          • Low population validity -> small sample size -> can't generalise
    • Cognitive Interviews
      • Designed to improve accuracy of recall in police interviews
      • 1) Context reinstatement 2) Report everything 3) Change perspective 4) Reverse order
        • 1) Mentally go back to the scene, everything about it: weather, thinking feeling, preceeding events
        • 2) Report every detail able to be recalled
        • 3) Recall from different viewpoints, not just own
        • 4) Several different orders, forwards and backwards
        • Interviewer must not interupt the recall otherwise they will interrupt a though process
      • Gieselman (1985)
        • Compared statements made in cognitive interviews and standard police interviews
        • Number of correct statements greater in cognitive interviews
          • Cognitive interviews produces a more accurate recall
        • EVALUATION
          • Lab experiment
            • Lacks ecological validity -> artificial setting -> can't generalise
            • Variables controlled -> result more valid
      • Fisher (1987)
        • Detectives used cognitive interview with real-life witnesses
        • More correct statements than with the standard police interview, first 2 stages more successful
          • Produces better recall whilst being more accurate
        • EVALUATION
          • Natural experiment
            • High ecological validity -> real-life situation -> can generalise
            • Less control of variables -> may be less valid

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