memory

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  • DURATION
    • STM
      • events in present or immediate past
      • LLoyd & Margaret Peterson (1959)
        • 24 students at university
        • nonsense trigrams plus 3 digits
        • count back in 3s until told to stop then recalled
        • retention interval increased each time - 3 6 9 12 15 secs
        • 90% recall with 3 sec interval; 2% with 18 sec
        • when rehearsal is prevented STM lasts approx. 20 secs at most
    • LTM
      • memories that last from 2 hours to 100 years
      • Shepard (1967)
        • ppts shown 612 memorable pics 1 at a time
        • shown with others pics 1 hour later - almost perfect recall
        • still able to recognise 50% 4 months later
    • NATURE OF MEMORY
      • CAPACITY
        • Joseph Jacobs (1887)
          • digit span technique
          • avg. digit span 9.3 - avg. letter span 7.3
          • only 9 digits but 26 letters
        • increasing capacity
          • magic number 7+/-2 (Miller 1956)
          • chunking
            • Simon (1974) - shorter mem span for larger chunks (e.g 8 word phrases) than 1 syll. words
      • ENCODING
        • acoustic
          • coding in terms of how info sounds
        • semantic
          • coding in terms of infos meaning
        • Baddeley (1966)
          • gave ppts words acoustically sim of diff and words semantically sim or diff
          • ppts found it hard to remember acoustically sim in STM not LTM
          • semantically sim no problem in STM but muddled LTM
        • visual codes also in STM - visual task and recall and verbal distractor
          • forced to use visual coding because acoustic was prevented

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