memory

  • Created by: Carolinww
  • Created on: 22-04-19 13:44
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  • Models of memory
    • Working memory model (WMM)           representation of short-term memory and it suggests its a dynamic process
      • Central Executive:     control the whole system   allocates information limited processing capacity
        • Phonological Loop (2s):        Phonological store - stores words you hear          Articulatory process - allows maintenance rehearsal
        • Visuo-spatial sketchpad (3/4 objects):  Visual cache - stores visual data             Inner scribe - records the arrangement of objects  in the visual field
        • Episodic Buffer:       Added in 2000 brings together material from other subsystems into a single memory and it provides a bridge bw working memory and LTM
      • Strengths:     Shallice and Warrington studied KF who had poor STM ability for verbal information but could process visual information normally. This suggests that just his phonological loop had been damaged. Which supports the existence of a separate visual and acoustic store.             /            Baddeley et al. showed that ups had more difficulty doing two visual tasks than doing one visual and one verbal task. This is because both visual tasks compete for the same slave system.
      • Weaknesses: Cognitive psychologist suggests that the central executive is unsatisfactory and it doesn't really explain anything. Even Baddeley recognised this by saying it's one of the most important components but it's the least understood.
    • Multi-story model  (Atkinson and Shiffrin) represents memory in terms of 3 stores and how information is transferred, how its remembered and forgotten
      • Strengths:                    Baddeley found that using our STM we have difficulty remembering acoustically similar words and when using our LTM, semantically words.  This shows that coding in STM and LTM is different and independent  from each other.
      • Weaknesses: KF case and other amnesia cases show that STM isn't a unitary store. This is because it shows that there could be another short-term store for non-verbal sounds.        / Craik and Watkins found that the prediction that the more you rehearse some information the more likely you are to transfer it to LTM and remember it. They discovered that there are 2 types of rehearsal - maintenance and rehearsal  which occurs when you link information to your existing knowledge.

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