Memory

  • Created by: efone
  • Created on: 12-01-19 16:00
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  • Memory
    • Coding, Capacity and duration
      • Coding
        • Baddeley 1966 Acoustically/ semantically similar/ dissimilar words
          • STM is acoustically LTM is semantically coded
          • Artificial stimuli used rather than meaningful material. Limited application as we can't generalise
        • The format in which info is stored in memory stores
      • Capacity
        • The amount of info that can be held in memory stores
        • Digit Span Jacobs 1887
          • Gave Pps 4 digits to remember and recall, then 5 etc.
          • Average digits- 9.3 average letters- 7.3
          • Research was a long time ago, lacked adequate control over confounding variables
        • Span of memory and chunking Miller 1956
          • People can remember 5 letters as well as 5 words- chunking
          • Might have overestimated capacity. Cowan said 4 chunks
          • Magic 7 plus or minus 2
      • Duration
        • STM Peterson and Peterson 1959
          • Pps given a consonant syllable (trigram such as YCG). Counted back from a 3 digit number
          • STM is up to 18 secs without rehearsal
          • Lacks external validity
        • LTM Bahrick et al 1975
          • Has higher external validity but confounding variables not controlled eg Pps might have looked at yearbook
          • Pps shown highschool yearbooks, tested on photo-recognition and free recall where they recalled classmates names
          • 15 years after graduation- 90% accurate in photo recog., recall 60%. 48 years- photo recog. 70%, recall 30%
    • MSM
      • Sensory register
        • Iconic memory- visual Echoic memory- acoustically
        • Stimulus from environment go into SR
        • Duration of half a second
        • Very high capacity
      • STM
        • Limited capacity 5-9 items
        • Coded acoustically
        • Lasts 30 secs unless
        • Shallice and Warrington studied KF 1970
          • More than one type of STM
          • KF struggled when digits read aloud to him but better when read to himself
        • Rehearsal
          • Maintenance- keeps info in STM
          • Elaborative- links info to existing knowledge in LTM
      • LTM
        • Potentially permanent store
        • Codes semantically
      • Supported by studies that show that LTM and STM are qualitatively different
    • LTM
      • Episodic
        • Ability to recall events in our lives
        • Time-stamped and have to recall consciously
      • Semantic
        • Knowledge of the world- facts, meanings of words
        • Not personal to us
      • Procedural
        • Memory for actions and skills
      • Evaluation
        • Case study of HM
          • Episodic memory damaged, semantic and procedural intact
          • One store can be damaged but others are unaffected
        • Neuroimaging evidence
          • Episodic and semantic recalled from prefrontal cortex
          • Physical difference between stores
        • Cohen and Squire 1980
          • Episodic and semantic stored together- declarative
          • Procedural is non-declarative
      • Tulving 1985- 3 types

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