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  • Memory...
    • Types of long term memory
      • Semantic memories
        • Memories for concepts and rules (including the rules of language).  Also general knowledge of the world
          • Examples: The capital  of France is Paris or wasps   can sting.
      • Episodic memories
        • Memories of particular life events (things that have happened or that have been done to you)
          • Examples: Where you went on your last holiday or your journey to school on that day.
      • Procedural memories
        • Knowledge of how to do things (knowing how).
          • Examples: How to answer an exam question or how to use a telephone.
    • The Working Memory Model
      • This is an alternative model to the Multi store model. It suggests that instead of the unitary STM there is a multi component system which handles information before the LTM. It has 4 main components that eventually lead into the LTM.
        • Central executive: The central executive is the control system. It controls our attention, overseas memory tasks and allocates work to other parts.
        • Phonological loop: This stores speech based sounds for a short period of time. It has two parts the phonological store which allows acoustically encoded items to be stored for a brief period of time and the articulatory control system which allows repetition of sounds in the phonological store.
        • The Visuo-spatial sketchpad: Stores visual and spatial information. It includes the visual cache and the inner scribe.
        • Episodic buffer: Combines information from different sources into episodes for storage. It combines the information  from the LTM for use in the working memory.
    • Explanations for forgetting
      • Interference-when a memory is disrupted by an old or new information coming into the memory.
        • Retroactive interference: When new memories disrupt old memories. Information learnt later interferes with information learnt earlier.
        • Proactive interference: When old memories disrupt new ones. Information learnt first interferes with information learnt later.
      • Retrieval failure
        • This theory suggests that forgetting occurs because the correct retrieval cues are not available.
    • Economic implications of research into memory.
      • Cognitive interviewing techniques improve eye witness accuracy and so uses less police time.
      • By understanding memory- can help in training in any job, this therefore increases the effectiveness of the workforce.


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