Mechanisms - 2

  • Created by: Shannon
  • Created on: 09-05-14 15:18
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  • Mechanisms
    • Classifying reactions
      • Addition
        • Joining 2 or more molecules to form a larger molecule
      • Polymerisation
        • Joining together of many monomers to form a giant molecule
      • Elimination
        • When an atom/atoms breaks away from a larger molecule
      • Substitution
        • When one species is replaced by another
      • Hydrolysis
        • Splitting a molecule by adding water
      • Oxidation
        • Loss of electrons
      • Reduction
        • Gain of electrons
      • Redox
        • Transference of electrons between 2 species
    • Bond fission can be...
      • Homolytic
        • Bond breaks evenly - 1 electron moves to each atom
      • Heterolytic
        • Bond breaks unevenly - both electrons from the shared electron pair move to one atom
          • Formation of 2 different species
            • Positively charged cation - electrophile
            • Negatively charged anion - nucleophile
    • Classifying reagents
      • Will help with predictions of how chemicals will react together and what products may be created
      • Nucleophiles
        • Electron pair donors
        • Are electron rich, so attracted to regions which are electron poor
        • Attack polar bonds
      • Electrophiles
        • Electron pair acceptors
        • Are electron poor, so attracted to electron rich regions, e.g double bonds
      • Free radical
        • Contain unpaired electrons so are very reactive
    • Breaking down of the ozone
      • Nitrogen oxides from car and aircraft engines
        • Affect ozone in the same way as chlorine radicals
      • Use of CFCs
        • Chlorine free radicals formed when CFCs broken down by UV
          • Free radical reacts with ozone to form an intermediate and an O2 molecule


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