MARX

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  • MARX
    • HISTORICAL MATERIALISM
      • humans are beings with material needs
      • must use the forces of production to meet material needs
      • over time forces grow & develop
        • rise to a division between two classes the bourgeoisie & the proletariat
    • CLASS SOCIETY & EXPLORATION
      • primitive communism - earliest stage of human history.
      • 3 successive class societies with their own form of exploitation
        • ancient society
        • feudal society
        • capitalist soceity
    • CAPITALISM
      • surplus value = the profit capitalist makes by selling commodities proletariat produced
      • capitalists pay lowest wages possible = immiseration (impoverishment) proletariat
      • production = concentrated in ever-larger units
    • CLASS CONSCIOUSNESS
      • capitalism sows its own seeds of destruction
        • polarising classes brings proletariat together in large numbers
      • proletariat becomes a class for itself - members are class conscious
    • IDEOLOGY
      • class owns production also owns the mental production (ideas)
      • fosters false consciousness in subordinate classes to sustain class inequality
        • see through capitalist ideology & become conscious of their position as 'wage slaves'
    • ALIENATION
      • loss of control over our labour & separation of our true nature
      • workers no control over the forces of production
      • worker reduced to unskilled, mindless, repetitive, meaningless tasks
    • THE STATE, REVOLUTION AND COMMUNISM
      • armed bodies of men protect interests of the ruling class
      • revolution will overthrow capitalism
    • CRITICISMS
      • marx's view of class
        • simplistic, one-dimensional view of inequality
        • simplistic, one-dimensional view of inequality
      • economic determinism
        • base-superstructure fails to recognise humans have free will & can bring change through their own consciousness
      • the 'Two Marxisms'
        • humanistic/ critical Marxism
        • scientific/ structuralist Marxism

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