Government policy

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  • Maintenance Political Stability
    • The Realm
      • Population. 1500-2.3m
        • 1600-4.1m
      • 1500-1550 Inflation 200%
        • 1550-1600- 400%
        • Wages Static- 90% spent on food
      • Poor harvests in 1549,1550, 1551
      • War against France and Scotland £3.5m
    • Role of the Monarch
      • Monarchs role increased after reformation- subjects no longer held loyalty Pope
      • Hierachal nature reinforced Great Chain on Being
        • Society Static- place in society fixed
          • Whilst possible to raise up- more likely to fall
      • Office holders to swear oath of allegiance, oaths of supremacy and succession; proclamations that were read in church; propaganda and patronage
      • Patronage
        • Henry VII- Order of garter
        • Monarchs- peerages, grants of monpolies
          • Danger under Elizabeth as over rewarded the Cecil faction which prompted Essex to rebel
    • The role of the Church
      • Despite religious change their was continuity in support
      • Church part of community- important in maintaining stability
      • Bishops crown appointees and anointed monarchs
      • Clerics used as advisors Fox under Henry VII and Henry VIII
        • Roland Lee under Henry VIII later appointed Head of Council of Wales
        • Church leaders supported the crown in times of unrest
          • Stoke- Rebels excommunicated
          • Blackheath rebels excommunicated
      • Clergy encouraged to inform bishops in times of unrest
        • Preaching helped reinforce obedience
          • From 1530's Priests given the content of their sermons
          • Made to preach about obedience 4x PA
          • Thomas Cramner wrote homlies
      • In some cases used passive resistance.
        • Lattimer against Henry and Cranmer against Mary
    • Religious Policies
      • religious policies part of unrest under Henry VIII and Edward
        • Henry VIII- dissolution of smaller monasteries and attacks on saint pilgrimages and holy days
        • Edward- dissolution chantries and prayer book
      • Elizabethan Religious settlement
        • Moderate approach Protestantism
          • Most Catholics accepted oaths uniformity and supremacy
    • Economic Policies
      • Innovative taxation cause of insatiability in the first half of the period
      • After 1540- other ways used to raise money
        • Debased coinage
        • Borrowed from over seas
        • Sold crown lands
        • Elizabeth did not raise taxes in line with inflation
    • Enclosure
      • Enclosure commission caused many to take law into own hands as believed this would be the likely finding
      • Cause of unemployment
    • Food riots
      • Limit export of grain
      • Measures taken to prevent hoarding
      • Book of orders that explained to JP's how to move grain to deprived areas
    • Unemployment
      • Regulation Cloth Industry
      • Untitled
  • Increased through propaganda
    • Henry VII- developed Tudor rose
    • Henry VIII used paintings to show physical power
    • Edward and Mary hard to do this as one a woman and the other a boy
    • Elizabeth- toured much of southern and central England; paegents held- imgae of stability and use of paintings to show her wisdom (links to Aesta- goddess of beauty)

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