Lung Diseases

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  • Lung Diseases
    • Pulmonery Tuberculosis
      • Symptoms: Persistent cough with chest pains, tiredness, weightloss, coughing up blood, death.
      • It is transmitted by aerosol droplets that contain the bacteria being released into the air, from coughs and sneezes by infected people.
      • Effects: The bacteria are engulfed by phagocytes and form tubercuoles, in which the bacteria remains dormant. Later on, the bacteria becomes active, they reproduce and create holes in the alveoli, reducing the surface area for gas exchange. Can also cause fibrous scar tissue.
    • Asthma
      • Symptoms: Coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath.
      • It is caused by an allergen being inhailed; pollen, dust mites.
      • Effects: Swelling of the lining of the airways, bronchioles contract restricting the airway, mucas is secreted and blocks the airways.
    • Pulmonery Fibrosis
      • Symptoms: Shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain.
      • Effects: Fiberous tissue is scarred and thickens the tissue in the alveoli walls. This creates a longer diffusion pathway so less diffusion of oxygen can take place. The fibrous tissue reduces the elasticity of the alveoli.
    • Emphysema
      • Symptoms: Shortness of breath.
      • It is not contagious and the primary source of it is smoking.
      • Effects: White blood cells release elastase which breaksdown the alveoli and forms large holes making a smaller surface area. The elastin in the alveoli can no longer recoil which makes it hard to achieve a high concentration gradient slowing the rate of diffusion. Less oxygen enters the bloodstream.
  • Effects: The bacteria are engulfed by phagocytes and form tubercuoles, in which the bacteria remains dormant. Later on, the bacteria becomes active, they reproduce and create holes in the alveoli, reducing the surface area for gas exchange. Can also cause fibrous scar tissue.

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