Learning Approach

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  • Created by: aggy98
  • Created on: 29-12-14 14:30
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  • Learning Approach
    • Classical conditioning
      • Pavlov
        • he realised that his dogs salivation levels increased when they heard footsteps- they normally only did so when food was there but they had associated footsteps with food so salivated.
        • 1.NS- the footsteps which would naturally cause no response
        • 2. UCS- in this case the food as it produces the response.
        • 3. UCR- this is the salivation in this case- this response is natural when presented with the UCS.
        • 4. once conditioned, the NS becomes the CS- it now produces the response which is called the CR
      • Extinction
        • this occurs after e.g. the dog has heard footsteps multiple times and no food has come- the CS will eventually not be associated with the UCR anymore and thus the CR will no longer happen.
        • This causes problems with aversion therapy- many people argue that aversion therapy is only short term because eventually extinction will occur.
      • Spontaneous recovery
        • If a person is removed from the enviroment, then e.g. they will show fear when they hear a cock crowing as the association has not completely vanished and they still associate the cock crowing with fear due to the earlier conditioning where the cock crowed at the same time as a load noise was made in the person's ear.
    • Aversion Therapy
      • This therapy uses classical conditioning to stop unwanted behaviours- such as alcoholism and fast food consumption
      • An example:  A person would be given a drug called antabuse( UCS) before being allowed a drink(NS). The antabuse would cause them to throw up( UCR). After doing this multiple times, the person would associate the alcohol( CS) with throwing up(CR) and avoid it, thus stopping their alcoholism
      • Strengths
        • A study by Howard in 2001 tested the effectiveness of aversion therapy with 82 patients on a 10 day programme- results found that after treatment they were classically conditioned from the alochol.
        • Informed consent is gained, as patient is choosing to take part
        • The positive effects can outweight any negative feelings from the patient.
      • Weaknesses
        • Many believe the therapy to be unethical as the drugs or other UCR's used may cause pain or permenant damage, therefore participants are not protected
        • Fails to identify underlying causes- thus may lead to other problems as causes still exist.
        • Informed consent may not always be gained
        • Spontaneous recovery may occcur due to an old association e.g. smoking and drinking. This means the treatment is only short term and not permenant
    • Little Albert
      • Aim: to explore whever or not a child could be classically conditioned to have fear of a neutral stimulus. watson and Rayner hoped to show all human behaviour could be acquired this way.
      • Method/Procedure: Lab experiment- a 9 month old male was used, seen as emotionally stable, shown a range of stimuli including a white rat- a rabbit- and some wooden blocks- Albert liked the rat and wanted to play with it.
        • 2 months later, Albert was hwon teh rat whilst a large metal bar was banged behind his head, which scared him. This was repeated 5 times a week later and 2 times more 17 days later.
      • Results: Albert displayed fear when metal bar was struck and jumped violently, sticking his head in a mattress. The next session Albert became suspicious of the rat and by the next one he leaned away from the rat as soon as it was presented
      • Conclusion: Albert now feared other white furry objects like a santa mask- known as generalisation. Fear reduced towards the rabbit after a few weeks, showing extinction had begun. Shows it is possible to classically condition a phobia.
    • Operant conditioning
      • positive re-inforcement- a reward is given when the desired behaviour is showed to make them show it again.
      • punishment: you are punished for undesired behaviour so you wont do it again
      • Negative- reinforcement: where you are not given so,ething unless you show desired behaviour
      • Skinner: rats in boxes, press alever, gain food
      • Throndike: a kitten in a puzzle box, gradually the kitten learned what behaviour to show in order to get out and gte food.
    • Social Learning Theory
      • bandura came up with the idea that we learnt through imitation
        • The armm process- 1. Attentional, 2. Rententional, 3. Motor Reproduction, 4. motivational
      • vicarious re-inforcemtn is hwere you see someone getting rewarded on e.g. tv for doing something good and copy it to get the same reward.
      • Bandura's study
        • Aim: to investigate whether agression could be acquired through modelling and whether it was mroe likely when children were presented with the same sex role model.
        • Procedure
          • 72 people, equal boys and girls aged 3 to 6
          • half the children saw an adult playing calmly with tinker toys for 10 minutes.
          • the other half saw adult play calmly for one minute and then agressively attack the bobo doll for nine minutes.
          • half saw same sex role model, half saw opposite. in control condition, children in room with toys but no role model.
          • the agression towards bobo doll was a sequence- hit, kick, knock down, toy mallet to head. Verbal comments also made by role model.
          • bandura tried to annoy children by not letting them have nice toys and then observing their behaviour in a room with bobo doll for 20 mintues 2 people obsrved through a one way mirror
        • Results
          • children from the control group were much less agressive and didnt show eact behaviour of role model.
          • boys were mroe likely to imitate the same sex role model.
          • boys were more likely to be physically agressive, whilst girls were more likely to be verbally so.



Thank You so much! This is so cool!!

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