Language Change 3

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  • Language Change 3
    • Lexical Change
      • Coinage
        • creation of new words
      • Obsolete
        • words are no longer used
      • Archaic
        • words are no longer used in modern english
      • Orthography
        • spelling of words
      • Back formation
        • occurs when words have been added to suffix E.G. baby sitter
      • Nelogsms
        • new words themselves
      • Scientific advantages in medicine + technology create new words
      • Borrowing
        • borrow new words from other languages normally food or objects
      • Affixation
        • prefixes or suffixes added to a words
      • Componding
        • combining two words together o create one E.G.hand-bag
      • Blending
        • two separate words blended together E.G. SMOG
      • Coversion
        • new words created when existing words changes class. spelling doesn't change just function
      • Clipping
        • drop syllables to make a word shorter E.G. Intro
      • iinitialisms
        • first letters stand for word E.G. NASA
      • Acronyms
        • initial letters combine to create a new words E.G. Sclept
    • Semantic Change
      • Metaphor
        • describes things as if they are actually something E.G. life is a rolacoaster
      • Metonymy
        • words assoiated with bojects E.G. cash is now ith money and used to be money box
      • Idiom
        • Sayings that dont make sense E.G. raining cats and dogs
      • Euphemism
        • alternative words used to not offed someone
      • Amileration
        • word develops a positive meaning E.G. sick
      • Cliche
        • If idioms are used a lot becomes clliche
      • Pejoration
        • Word develops a negative meaning E.G. silly
      • When words change meaning
      • Slang and colloquialisms used
    • Graphological change
      • Media and technology has chnged
      • 18th Century onwards
        • more words began with capital letters and in PDE
        • proper nouns capitalized
        • Abstract nouns or other words capitalized for emphasis
      • 17th century
        • long S based on handwriting style -- appeared in printed texts
          • 19th century long S used at the end of words and alongside each other SS
      • Middle 20th century -- Serif type face used
        • Mid 20th century onwards -- sans serif used
          • more fashionable


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