Language change 2

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  • Language Change 2
    • Graphological change
      • An individual letter used as a symbol -X
      • Overall layout
        • focuses on appealing areas
      • Font/Type face
        • Caxton printing press from handwritten 1476
      • Illistration
        • colured images due to better technology
    • Semantic Change
      • Idiom
        • a group of words that have a figurative meaning --E.G. She is pulling my leg
      • Euphemism
        • A polite form word form too inappropriate to talk about E.G. birds and Bees
      • Political Correctness
        • when words and phrases change E.G. fro mentally handicapped to learning difficulties
      • Brodening
        • The meaning of a word becomes more general but retains some of its original meaning E.G. Sick
      • Narrowing
        • A words meaning becomes more specific
      • Metaphor
        • Words often acquire new meaning because they are used metaphorically E.G. Broken heart
      • Amelioration
        • word acquires a more positive meaning
      • Pejoration
        • words obtains a negative meaning
      • Weakening
        • Words lose some of their original strength and meaning E.G. swear words
    • Lexical Change
      • Affixation
        • the addition of bound morphenes9suufix and prefix) to an existing word E.G. sudden LY
      • Acroyn
        • a word formed from parts of words E.E. NASA
      • Initalism
        • a  group of initials used to form a word but pronounced separately E.G. BBC
      • Clipping
        • Forming words by dropping one or more syllables from a polysyllabic word e.g. Flu
      • Eponyms
        • Name of something after whom is named E.G. Sandwich after lord sandwich
      • Propriety names
        • Something need after a brand E.G. Vacuum cleaner named after hoover is they made it
      • Coumpond
        • two words put together to form a new word E.G. Girl+ Friend
      • Blending
        • two words mixed together E.G. Smoke + fog = smog
      • Archaisms
        • Words that are obsolete and no longer used by public
    • Phonological Change
      • Omission
        • Sounds are lost from words
      • Assimulation
        • a sound becomes similar to an adjacent sound
      • Estuary English
        • Standard English with a certain accent - Mark Fancis
      • Vals Speak
        • rising use of intonation and emphases such as like and totally is a sign of lack of condifence --- filler
      • Martha's Vineyard
        • deliberately diverging language speak to fit in
    • Grammatical Change
      • Adverb have changed positions E.G The RIPEST fruit falls first
      • Now use contractions E.G. Won't and Don't
      • Change in word order (syntax) particularly pronouns. E.G. Dreadful stores they were -- they were dreadful stories
      • Started to replace adverbs with adjectives " you've done great"
      • Irregualr verbs still changing E.G. I've Write it
      • pronouns
        • 'whom being replaced with whom
    • Orthographical Change
      • Long S
      • Homonyms
        • same sound, same spelling different meaning E.G. stalk
      • Vowel sounds spelt differently E.G. a, eight, ay
      • Homophone
        • same sound, different spelling different meaning E.G. weight and wait

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