Language and Region

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  • Created by: AbbyKing
  • Created on: 24-05-17 14:14
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  • Language and Region
    • Kerswill and Williams
      • A mixture of children originally from different places around the UK were attending primary school.
      • Within the playgrounds, new dialects were appearing as the variations were being combined.
      • Dialect Levelling
        • New dialects emerging from the melding of several other dialects.
    • Leslie Milroy
      • The study was conducted in 3 different council estates in Belfast
      • Generally women with los statuses were using more standard pronunciation than men, possibly to raise their self esteem.
      • The social networks of the women determined their accents, the close-knit community were further from standard communication than what their accent was.
      • The Ballymacarrett estate women has jobs off the estate so had wider social networks and had more standard pronunciation
    • Holmes
      • Subordinate groups must be polite
        • The powerful expect the powerless to be polite and conform to their expectations.
      • Women's role as a guardian of social values.
        • Women raise the children and so they need to pass on the norms and values and speak RP or standard English.
          • RP - Received Pronunciation
      • Vernacular forms express machismo
        • The working class masculine identity is formed by avoiding RP and SE as they are seen as 'posh' and 'snobby'. They're also avoided as they are seen as feminine.
      • The social status explanation
        • Women use standard English more in order to elevate themselves and to feel more empowered.
    • Trudgill
      • Conducted in Norwich and focuses on the different uses of regional variation between class and gender.
      • The lower social status of people were more likely to replace 'ng' sounds with 'n'. Men also did this.
      • Lower classes also dropped 'h' sounds more. Only 6% of the upper classes dropped the 'h'
      • Working class men under-reported the use of RP whereas working class women over-reported the use of RP.
      • Social stratification theory
        • British society has a hierarchy of social classes and their us a correlation between social class and accent/dialect spoken.
    • Cheshire
      • Conducted on gangs in Reading. Looking at language used by the gang members.
      • The gang leaders were more non-standard than those on the edge of the gang.
        • Can be linked to Leslie Milroy's social network theory.
    • Giles
      • Accommodation theory
        • Convergence
          • We change our language to be like the people around us.
        • Divergence
          • We change our language to be different to the people around us.
      • Matched Guise Experiment
        • The same actor did different accents to factory workers in the North of England. He then tested their judgements and attitudes towards the various accents.
          • He found that people were more likely to agree with the RP accent rather than the non-standard and regional ones due to the social connotations.
    • Labov
      • Martha's Vineyard
        • He found that natives of an island that left at a young age and then returned had stronger regional accents than their parents. He concluded that this was for demonstrating solidarity and distinguishing themselves from the 'summer people'
      • New York
        • He tested 3 department stores in New York, each with clientele of a different class. He focused on the post-vocalic 'r'.
        • People in the lower class department store didn't pronounce the 'r'. Middle class people pronounced the 'r' on repeat, and upper class people always pronounced the 'r'.
    • Non-Standard Accent Features
      • Glottal stop
      • Post vocalic 'y'
      • 'th' fronting
      • high rising tone.
    • Code Switching
      • When people who are bilingual use both languages for different situations. This can also be used for register.
    • Multicultural London English (MLE)
      • The cultural change in language due to influences from various cultures such as Jamaican. Originated in London and quickly spreaded to other ares in the UK through use and music.


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