Language and Occupation

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  • Language and Occupation
    • Drew and Heritage: They suggested members of a discourse community, like in a workplace, share inferential frameworks (knowledge built up over time to understand implicit meanings) and asymmetrical relationships (like between boss and employee) are shown through language use.
      • Features of institution talk that differ from everyday talk: Goal orientation       Turn-taking rules and restrictions - could be unwritten, like a doctor asking questions for diagnosis      Allowable contributions   Professional lexis                Structure on who has power             Asymmetry
    • Teachers use the initiation, response, feedback structure. They formulate information said by students. They elicit a response from the students and use super polite forms.
    • Accommodation theory (Giles)             Convergence is when a speaker adapts their language to sound more like who they're talking to.         Divergence is when a speaker adapts their language to sound less like who they're talking to.
    • There is often specialist jargon used relating to the job.
    • Doctors appointments have a structure - history-taking, physical examination, diagnosis and management.
      • Candace West found doctors use directives. Male doctors use aggressive directives and need and want statements. Female doctors use mitigated directives to give the patient responsibility. They also use co-partnership and inverse imperatives.
    • Ventola: service encounters include an offer of service, a request for service, a transaction and a salutation.
    • Koestar - said there is phatic talk in the workplace discourse community which is important  in effective working because it is used to connect with others and create impersonal relationships so employees can support each other.
    • Swales - said discourse communities share common goals, communicate internally, have special lexis and must possess a level of skill and knowledge to be eligible.
    • Inferential framework - knowledge built over time to understand things that are implicit.
    • Standard English, latinate lexis, epistemic and deontic modals, active voice, complex syntax, imperatives, exclusivity.
    • Constraints - controlling, interrupting, competitive overlap
    • Formulation - such as negatively rewording something to make someone doubt themself. Often used in court.
    • Politeness Principle (Lakoff) - Don't impose, give options, make the receiver feel good
    • Repressive discourse strategy - exerting power in a more subtle, slightly more polite way, such as saying "I prefer quiet" when someone is being loud. / Oppressive discourse strategy - explicit exertion of power, like telling someone to shut up.
    • Instrumental power - enforces authority. Is imposed by laws, state, organisations. E.g. "SHUT UP!" / Influential power - persuades us to behave in a certain way, e.g. "Please don't touch the wet paint."
    • Fairclough - adverts use synthetic personalisation to create a relationship with the viewer/reader using direct address and ideology.
    • Personal power - based on someone's personal traits, like parents or charismatic people. May be used to manipulate.
    • Brown and Levinson - negative face is the basic personal rights of a person, such as freedom of speech/not being interrupted. Positive face is the desire to be appreciated by others, such as someone's paintings.
    • Grice's Maxims - Quantity, quality, manner, relevance

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