labelling/ interactionist -crime and deviance

  • Created by: M_gan
  • Created on: 27-02-19 12:22
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  • labelling/ interactionist view
    • Cicourel's 'negotiation of justice study'
      • typifications are stereotypes of what the typical delinquent looks like
      • leads to class bias
        • WC are likely to fall into a self fulfilling prophecy as they are perceived as criminals
        • MC offenders are less likely to be prosecuted as police don't see them as criminals
    • Becker
      • argued that deviance can be amplified through labelling
      • through labelling they gain a master status - this changes how others treat the individual
      • the labels create a self-fulfilling prophecy and perhaps a deviant career
      • once the label is accepted they may join a deviant subculture
    • Lemert primary and secondary deviance
      • primary deviance is deviant acts that haven't been publicly labelled
        • widespread and unlikely to have a single cause
        • eg underage drinking
        • not part of a deviant way of life
        • doesn't affect an individuals status or self-concept
      • secondary deviance is a social reaction of labelling where they are stigmatised and publicly labelled as a criminal
        • they are only seen as their label, it becomes their master status
        • causes a crisis of the individuals self concept/ sense of identity
        • eg drug dealing
    • Cohen deviance amplification
      • studied powerless groups like the mods and rockers
      • media reported the events with exaggeration and distortion, predicted that it would continue and symbolistion as it created a moral panic towards the negatively labelled groups
      • the spiral
        • the deviant act occurs: the media exaggerates and oversimplifies the problem creating a folk devil
          • exaggerated media response: a sense of panic and outrage is sparked in the public
            • negative social reaction: police 'get tough on the deviance'
              • police crackdown: the crackdown makes the deviance seem more glamourous and rebellious
                • the deviant act occurs: the media exaggerates and oversimplifies the problem creating a folk devil
                  • exaggerated media response: a sense of panic and outrage is sparked in the public
                    • negative social reaction: police 'get tough on the deviance'
                      • police crackdown: the crackdown makes the deviance seem more glamourous and rebellious
      • Braithwaites shaming
        • disintegrative shaming: both crime and criminal are excluded and labelled,  they aren't helped to re-enter society eg USA prison system
        • integrative shaming: only the crime is labelled and excluded not the person,  they are helped to re-enter society eg Bastoy in Norway
          • lower reoffending rate, helped back into society, only freedom is taken away not their life
          • not treated as though they have committed a crime as they aren't being punished, some argue that this would glorify crime
      • evaluation
        • strengths
          • generated further research into the effects of labelling which have made a major contribution to the study of society
          • explains why working class men commit more crime and criticises functionalist and subcultural theories
          • useful when explaining ethnic differences in offending
        • weaknesses
          • dismiss official statistics on crime too quickly
          • explain crime committed by WC and BAME groups as a social construction
          • lacks any practical policy focus

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