L van Beethoven Pathetique sonata

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  • L van Beethoven- piano sonata 'pathétique'
    • Instrumentation
      • fortepiano or pianoforte
      • piano is Italian for soft forte means loud in italian
      • lots of dynamic levels can be achieved
      • sustaining pedal
    • Structure
      • Sonata form
      • exposition: two main subjects tonic and dominant
      • development: earlier tunes are altered, modulating to other keys
      • recapitulation: restates the exposition but with both subjects in the tonic.
    • Tonality
      • key of C minor
      • modulates to related keys Eflat major
      • also modulates to unrelated keys E minor
    • Harmony
      • chromatic chords especially diminished sevenths
      • perfect cadences at the end of the movement
      • interrupted cadences introduction bar 9
      • use of circle of fifths
      • augmented 6th chords bar 30
    • Melody
      • slow introduction, short motif
      • Scalic passages, descending, ascending and chromatic scales
      • arpeggios and broken chords, bars 29-30
      • ornaments are important features of the second subject, mordents and trills
    • Texture
      • intro has homophonic passages
      • right hand plays in octaves later in intro
      • second subject melody-dominated homophony
    • Tempo, metre and rhythm
      • intro is 'grave' slow
      • time signature is quadruple time
      • dotted rhythm
      • rapid notes
      • continuous quavers
      • staccato crotchets


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