Kinetics

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  • Created by: Shannon
  • Created on: 13-03-14 10:51
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  • Kinetics
    • Le Chateliers principle
      • If a dynamic equilibrium is disturbed by changing the conditions, the position of equilibrium moves to counteract the change.
      • Affect of pressure
        • Will shift equilibrium in the direction of the reaction with fewest particles
      • Affect of temperature
        • "heat favours the endothermic reaction"
          • Will shift equilibrium to the endothermic reaction
    • The collision theory
      • Particles need to collide
        • An increase in concentration
          • There are more particles in the same amount of space.
            • This means that particles are more likely to collide, increasing the frequency of collisions.
        • An increase in pressure
          • The same number of particles are present but in a smaller space.
            • This means that particles are more likely to collide, increasing the frequency of collisions.
        • An increase in surface area
          • Increases the area for particles to collide with.
            • More collisions = faster rate of reaction
      • Particles must have sufficient energy - possess the activation energy
        • Addition of a catalyst
          • Lowers the activation needed for the reaction to occur
            • More particles have E > Ea
              • Reaction occurs at a faster rate
    • Factors affecting reaction rate
      • Surface area
      • Concentration
      • Temperature
      • Pressure
      • Catalyst
    • Maxwell-Boltzman distribution
      • Particles do not all possess the same energy
        • Energies are distributed
      • Factors affecting distribution
        • Catalyst
          • Does not effect the average energy of the particles
            • Activation energy is lowered
              • More particles with E > Ea
        • A decrease in concentration
          • More particles have energy less than Ea
    • Activation energy
      • The minimum amount of energy required for a chemical reaction to occur
    • Catalyst
      • A substance that speeds up the rate of reaction, by using an alternative pathway with lower activation energy.
        • The substance is not used up during the reaction.

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