Keeping Healthy

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  • Keeping Healthy
    • Diet and excersize
      • Both obese and starving people can be malnourished
        • you become malnourished if you have a lack of something in your diet
          • unbalanced diet
            • Lack of vitamins
          • Lack of vitamins
      • Water balance
        • controlled by the kidneys
          • they control it by producing different concentrations of urine
        • Alcohol consumption
          • causes us to produce a greater amount of dilute urine.
            • causing dehydration
    • Homeostatis
      • Our bodies need to control things like body temperature and water level to keep them constant.
      • Keeps internal conditions the same
        • Body temp. 37 °C and water levels
      • Challenges
        • Outside environment is constantly changing
        • Strenuous exercise, or living in a hot or cold environment, affect our body temperature and water balance.
      • we have different body systems to enforce this
        • receptors
          • respond to stimuli-temperature change
      • temp to high
        • hairs flatten on our arms
          • Sweat- so that heat can evaporate from your skin
            • Vasodilation- hypothalamus detects temperature change, sends impulses which cause blood vessels supplying the capillaries in the skin to dilate.
              • The increased blood flow to the surface tissues under the skin means that more heat is lost.
      • temp to high
        • Shiver
          • Hair on our arms satnd up to trap heat
    • Vaccinations and antibiotics
      • vaccines contain a dead weekened or inactive from of a disease
        • these all act as anti gens
          • they stimulate white blood cells which produce andti-bodies
      • Ignaz semmelweiss
      • it is difficult to develop a drug that will kill viruses and not damage tissues.
      • Alexander flemming
        • discovered penicillin
      • Mutations in bacteria can result in them becoming resistant to antibiotics, turning the bacteria into a ‘superbug’. Superbugs can develop while a person is taking a course of antibiotics.
      • Resistance
        • Over time, bacteria can become resistant to certain antibiotics: this is an example of natural selection. In a large population of bacteria, there may be some that are not affected by the antibiotic.
          • These survive and reproduce, creating more bacteria that are not affected by the antibiotic.
            • Untitled
    • Disease and Resistance
      • pathogens are micro-organisms that cause infectious diseases.
        • Bacteria
          • bacteria release toxins when inside the body causing you to feel ill.
          • living cellls
          • multiply quickly in the right conditions,  of warmth moisture and nutrients.
        • Viruses
          • they have a protective protein coat.
          • reproduce inside host cells, causing it to burst open
            • they then pass thorough the blood stream
      • Lines of defence
        • Natural barriers
          • skin
          • Sweat chemicals
          • Stomach acid
          • tear chemicals
        • White blood cells
          • ingest and destroy
          • produce anti bodies and destroy
          • produce anti-toxins and neutralise  the towins
          • anti-bodies and toxins are specialised proteins
          • memory cells
            • can respond quickly when it meets a micro organism for a second time.
              • produces antibodies to destroy
    • disease transmission
      • direct contact: mother to chiild trough placenta, hands
      • indirect: wet contaminated floors
      • airborne droplets
      • Insect Bites
      • food and water. natural disasters
    • heart disease
      • heart disease occurs when cour coronary arteries become clogged.
        • Your arteries carry blood from the heart, and veins return blood to it.
    • drug testing
      • tested on model human cells in a lab
        • animal testing
          • clinical trials with healthy volunteers
            • double blind trials
              • neither the patient or doctor know who has the placeblo

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