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  • Issues
    • Gender Bias
      • Androcentrism
        • Behaviour judged by male standard, view female behaviour as abnormal - higher levels of depression
      • Alpha Bias
        • Exaggerates differences between genders, often leads to females being undervalued - Freudian Gender
      • Beta Bias
        • Minimise differences between genders, assume response will be the same - Asch conformity
      • Different treatment of either gender resulting in view that does not represent that gender
      • Evaluation
        • Beginning to recognise effect of values and assumptions/ embraced as critical aspect of research/ Dambrin & Lambert (2008) considered how gender affect interpretation
        • Create misleading assumptions about women/ provide justification to deny women/ women are abnormal when men are normal/ damaging consequence on women's lives
        • Lack of senior female researchers/ male researchers published more/ lab expts. disadvantage women as researcher labels them/ support institutional sexism
        • Based on essentialist view that gende differnece is fixed/ 1930s 'scientific' research said intellectual activity would shrivel ovaries/ politically motivated by biological 'facts'/ creates double standard
        • Feminists suggest criteria to avoid bias/ women studied in real-life context/ diversity within groups not between groups/ collaborative methods with qualitative data
    • Cultural Bias
      • Ethnocentrism
        • Judging culture by standards of own culture, see other cultures as abnormal - Ainsworth
      • Emic/Etic Approach
        • An Emic approach considers culture from within it's own terms and uses local researchers - Buss
      • Cultural Relativism
        • Norms, values, ethics and morals can only be understood in specific social and cultural context
      • Tendency to ignore cultural differences and judge through own culture
      • Evaluation
        • Often use collectivist & individualist distinctions/ collectivists focus on interdependence and the needs of the group/ world more interconnected less distinctions between Japan & USA/ cultural bias less of an issue
        • Berry reminds that psychology is culturally specific/ not all behaviour is culturally relative/ basic facial expressions universal as is interactional synchrony/ full understanding needs universals and variation
        • In Western culture assume ppts familiar with scientific enquiry/ same knowledge may not apply to other cultures/ demand characteristic/ adverse effect on validity
        • Variables may not be experienced for all ppts/ behavioural expression like aggression may be different across cultures/ China view invasion of personal space as normal, western it's aggressive/ issues may affect interactions
        • Cross-cultural research challenges western way of thinking/ knowing understanding is different may lead to greater sensitivity/ counters scientific racism/ greater validity if recognise role of culture
    • Ethical Implications
      • Impact of psychological research in terms of rights, societal levels, pubilc policy or view of a group
      • Social Sensitivity
        • Implications or consequences for ppts or class represented
      • Evaluation
        • Benefits of socially sensitive research/ promote greater sensitivity of controversial topics & groups/ unreliability of EWT resulted in fewer miscarriages of justice/ valuable role in society
        • Phrasing may may influence way findings are interpreted/ cross-cultural research may be blighted by ethnocentrism/ heterosexual bias where homosexual relationships judged by hetero norm/ open mind so as to not misrepresent
        • Research used to shape social policy without full consideration of implications/ research into subliminal messages used by marketing in 50s but findings were made up/ difficult to know who benefits from research/ ethical implications
        • USA 20s & 30s legislation to sterilise 'feeble-minded'/ people of low intelligence and addicts/ rationale supported by psychologists that saw such as unfit to breed/ socially sensitive research used to support discriminatory practices
        • Research with ethical implications subject to scrutiny by ethical committee/ weigh potential benefits against cost/ social consequences cannot always be anticipated/ subjective and truth can only be known afterwards
    • Universality
      • Characteristic of humans apply to all despite gender or cultural differences
    • Bias
      • Tendency to treat an individual or group differently to another


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