Statistics: refers to collections of quantitative information, and methods of handling data, 

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  • Introduction to research and analytical skills and experimental design
    • Dependent vs Independent
      • Independent variable: this is the factor that can be changed.
      • Dependent variable: The factor that consequently changes.
    • Experiment is an investigation of the relationship between two things by deliberately producing a change in the other.
    • Two types of experiments
      • 1) OBSERVATIONAL
        • Experimental conditionsare NOT manipulated
        • One or more responses measured and correlated with one or more 'environmental' measurements.
        • This type of experiment is realistic as it is 'natural' and not manipulated. A good general experiment unlike manipulative experiments.
      • 2) MANIPULATIVE
        • Experimental conditions are manipulated and controlled to investigate cause and effect relationship.
        • This approach allows relationships to be deduced.
        • Manipulative experiment has excelled control of independent variables and good deduction ability unlike observation experiments.
    • Research hypothesis
      • Null hypothesis (Ho)- represents a theory that has been put forward 1) because it believed to be true or; 2) because it is used as a bsis for argument but has not been proved.
    • Research Hypothesis
      • Null Hypothesis
        • This hypothesis assumes the two sample means drawn from two populations are the same. Even though the means are different
      • Alternative hypothesis
        • This hypothesises simply the differences.
      • Repititions
        • How many observations need to be made to ensure that the results collected are valid.
        • eg: sample size
        • The term replication means that a sample should normally consist of more than one sampling unit
        • The greater the variation in data, more data required to produce a value in confidence.
        • The reliability of a sample average depends on the variation of data.
    • Randomisation
      • The process by which experimental units are allocated to treatments: by random process therefore no biased approach.
      • The treatments should be allocated in such a way that each treatment is equallylikely to be applied to each unit.
      • Randomised block design-this can be used as random sampling cannot be easily achieved. It isn't possible to sample a whole population evenly.
        • 1: Divide the population into different groups.2: take sample from all the different groups.
  • Two types of experiments
    • 1) OBSERVATIONAL
      • Experimental conditionsare NOT manipulated
      • One or more responses measured and correlated with one or more 'environmental' measurements.
      • This type of experiment is realistic as it is 'natural' and not manipulated. A good general experiment unlike manipulative experiments.
    • 2) MANIPULATIVE
      • Experimental conditions are manipulated and controlled to investigate cause and effect relationship.
      • This approach allows relationships to be deduced.
      • Manipulative experiment has excelled control of independent variables and good deduction ability unlike observation experiments.

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