internal factors

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  • Created by: hoodp01
  • Created on: 12-05-16 12:00
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  • internal factors
    • self-fulfilling prophecy
      • step 1: the teacher labels a pupil         step 2: the teacher treats the pupil accordingly, acting as if the prediction is already true     step 3: the pupil internalises the teachers expectation, either living up to the label or rejecting it
      • some can reject  the label. Mary Fuller studied a group of yr 11 black girls who were labelled disruptive but they went against them and tried to do well
    • labelling
      • Howard Becker carried out a study and found that the teachers judged pupils according to how closely they fitted an image of the 'ideal pupil'
        • saw middle class children as the closest to the ideal and working class as the furthest because they regarded them as badly behaved
      • different interpretations of the 'ideal pupil'
        • largely working class primary school - quiet, passive and obedient behaviour
        • mainly middle class - defined in terms of personality and academic ability
      • secondary schools
        • teachers normalised the underachievement of working class pupils and felt like they could do nothing about it
          • underestimate working class pupils potential and those who were doing well were seen as 'overachieveing'
        • teachers believed they could overcome the underachievement of middle class pupils
    • steaming
      • self-fulfilling prophecy is particularly likely to occur
      • working class pupils aren't seen as an ideal pupil, are seen as lacking ability and have low expectations so are more likely to find themselves in a lower stream
      • those in a lower stream usually find it difficult to move up to a higher stream. They 'get the message' that their teachers have written them off as no-hopers
      • middle class pupils tend to benefit as they are placed in higher streams, as they are seen as an ideal pupil
      • educational triage
        • (1) the walking wounded, who can be ignored because they will survive       (2) those who will die anyway, who will also be ignored         (3) those with a chance of survival, who are given treatment in the hope of saving them
          • (1) those who will pass anyway and can be left to get on with it
          • (2) hopeless cases, who are doomed to fail
          • (3) those with potential, who will be helped to get a grade C or better
    • pupil subcultures
      • the pro-school subculture
        • pupils in higher streams tend to remain committed to the values of the school
      • the anti-school subculture
        • those placed in low streams suffer a loss of self esteem: the school has undermined their self-worth. This pushes them to invert the schools values of hard work, obedience and punctuality


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