Inhaled Route of Delivery

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  • Inhaled Route of Delivery
    • Conditions where the inhaled route is used
      • Asthma
      • COPD
      • Cystic Fibrosis
    • Advantages
      • Smaller doses can be used
      • Rapid absorption
      • Minimise chemical and enzymatic drug degradation
      • Avoid GI upset
      • Avoid first pass metabolism
    • Disadvantages
      • Require complex delivery devices (cost)
      • Difficult to use
      • Low reproducibility of dose delivery
      • Mucus layer in lungs limiting absorption
      • Mucociliary clearance reduces retention time
      • Oropharyngeal deposition - local side effects
    • Types of inhalers
      • Dry powder inhalers (DPI)
        • Unit-dose devices
          • Dose contained in hard gelatin capsule and placed individually into device prior to use.
          • e.g. Handihaler®, Spinhaler®, Aerolizer®
        • Multi-dose devices
          • More convenient - no individual dose loading
          • Drug filled into foil blister disc containing multiple doses, and loaded by patient
          • e.g. Accuhaler®, Clickhaler®, Turbohaler®
      • Pressurised metered dose (pMDI)
        • Most popular
        • Mixture of gas and liquid discharged from device
        • Advantages
          • Portable
          • Low cost
          • Contains many doses (up to 200)
          • Reproducible doses
          • Inert conditions protect drug
        • Disadvantags
          • Inefficient drug delivery (oropharyngeal impaction)
          • Errors in administration
        • Breath-actuated pMDI
          • Useful for patients who have difficulty coordinating breathing and actuation
      • Nebulisers
  • Inhaler technique from Chemist and Druggist


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