Infancy 0-2 years - Physical

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  • Infancy 0-2 - Physical
    • Grow
      • infancy is the time when growth and development are at their most rapid.
    • Reflexes
      • Babies have primitive reflexes which disappear; they protect the baby in the first few months of life.
    • Primitive reflexes
      • Survival reflexes
      • automatic responses stay with us for life and some disappear as the natural bodily responses take over. This set of reflexes indicates that the new-born's central nervous system is in good working order.
    • Rooting reflex
      • causes babies to turn their cheek in the direction of touch and helps them to direct their mouth towards their mother’s breast.
    • Sucking reflex
      • causes babies to **** any object that touches their lips or enters their mouth and enables them to feed from birth.
    • Moro reflexes
      • causes babies to fling their arms outwards, arch their back then bring their arms together as if they were holding something and occurs in response to a loud noise.
    • Grasping reflex
      • causes babies to curl their fingers tightly around any object placed in their palm.
    • Tonic neck reflex
      • causes babies to turn their head, arms and legs to one side when laid on their back; they flex the limbs on the opposite side.
    • Stepping reflex
      • causes babies to lift their legs as if about to walk when held upright.
    • Babinski reflex
      • causes babies to fan then curl their toes when the bottom of their foot is stroked.
    • Gross Motor skills
      • large movements that involve using the large muscles of the body which are required for mobility, for example rolling over.
      • Babies have little control over their head if it's not supported by an adult
      • 6 Months have complete control over their head
        • Cushions, head support (Activities)
      • 9 Months pull themselves up to sitting position
        • Jumperoo, positioning baby on sofa/floorwith cushion support, bouncer. (Activities)
      • 12 months stand alone
        • Push and pull toys, ride/walking toys, adultholding child in standing position (Activities)
      • 15 months can walk alone
        • Walking toys, adult holding child whilst walking, push and pull toys. (Activities)
      • 2 years - can walk up and down stairs w/ 2 feet on one step
    • Fine Motor skills
      • involve smaller movements that require precise direction (dexterity) and use smaller muscles, for example picking up a pencil.
      • New-borns keep their hands closed most of the time
        • Automatic grasp reflex
          • Disappears by 3 months
      • 6 months a child will generally voluntarily grasp an object or toy and hold it.
        • Baby gym, mobile (Activities)
      • 9 months the movements in the hand become more refined and most children can use finger and thumb to hold objects ‘pincer grasp’.
        • Puzzle toys, digging, rattle (Activities)
      • 12 months they can hold a crayon using the ‘palmar grasp’.
        • Colouring in, puzzle toys. (activities)
      • 15 months they can usually take a spoon to their mouth, and by 2 years they may begin to dress themselves.
        • Food time, pretend kitchen toys, construction toys. (Activities)
        • Dolls/characters/teddy bears. (Activities)


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