immune system

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  • immune system.
    • pathogens- microorganisms that cause infections or  disease       eg: bacteria and virus
      • viruses: live in host cells and replicate whithin them damaging the cell- eventually the host will burst open and passed through bloodstreams, airways etc.
      • bacteria:  Bacteria are living cells and, in favourable conditions, can multiply rapidly. Once inside the body they release poisons or toxins that make us feel ill.
    • antibodies and antigens
      • antibodies are made by b-lymphocytes from the white blood cells.
        • antibodies recognise foreign chemicles and cells which are known as antigens which they then engulf or destroy
          • each antigen has a specific shape and requires its own antibody- white blood cells activate this process for a specific antibody to be made to attatch to an antigen.


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