Biology B3 - Homeostasis

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  • Homeostasis
    • Temperature
      • Too Cold
        • Shivering
          • Thermo-regulatory centre sends impulse to muscles to contract more
            • Requires more respiration which produces heat energy
        • Vaso Constriction
          • Receptor cells in the skin detect the change
            • Sends impulse to thermo-regulatory centre in the brain
              • Arterioles near the skin surface constrict
                • Allows less blood to flow to the skin capillaries
                  • Less heat radiating from the skin
        • Hairs Stand Up
          • Hairs on the skin's surface become erect
            • Hair can trap heat and provide insulation for the skin
      • Too Hot
        • Sweating
          • Water and mineral ions lost from the body in sweat. Can cause dehydration.
          • Water evaporates from the body when temperatures are too high.
          • Sweat glands in the skin release more sweat which contains heat
        • Average internal body temperature is 37 degrees
        • Vaso Dilation
          • Receptor cells in the skin detect the change
            • Sends an impulse to the thermo-regulatory centre in the brain
    • Blood Glucose
      • Low Glucose Levels
        • Pancreas receptor cells detect the change
          • Pancreas releases glucagon which travels in the blood to the liver (effector)
            • Liver converts the glycogen back into glucose.
              • This travels in the blood, raising the blood glucose concentration
      • High Glucose Levels
        • Pancreas receptor cells detect the change
          • Pancreas releases the hormone insulin which travels in the blood to the liver (effector)
            • Liver converts glucose from the blood into glycogen for storage
    • Waste Products
      • Urea
        • Produced in the liver
          • Produced when excess amino acids are broken down
          • Toxic, can build up in the body
        • Removed from the blood in the kidneys by filtration
          • Removed from the body in urine (stored in bladder)
      • Carbon Dioxide
        • Produced during aerobic respiration
        • Removed from the body when we breathe out
    • Water and Mineral Ions
      • Sweat
        • If water levels are too high, more water will be released in sweat or urine
      • Urine
        • High Water Levels
          • Hypo-thalamus detects the change in water levels
            • Pituitary gland releases less ADH
              • Kidneys reduce water level
                • So more water is lost in urine
      • Selective Reabsorption
        • In a kidney tubule, water and mineral ions are filtered out of the blood
          • Depending on the need, water and mineral ions are reabsorbed
            • This is known as Selective Reabsorption
  • Allows more blood to flow to the skin capillaries
    • More heat radiates out of the skin
  • Hypo-thalamus detects the change in water levels
    • Low Water Levels
      • Urine
        • High Water Levels
          • Hypo-thalamus detects the change in water levels
            • Pituitary gland releases less ADH
              • Kidneys reduce water level
                • So more water is lost in urine
    • Pituitary gland releases ADH
      • Kindeys maintain water level
        • So less water is lost in urine

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