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  • homeostasis
    • maintains optimal conditions for enzyme action and all cell functions
    • controls in the body
      • blood glucose concentration
        • monitored and controlled by the pancreas
          • when too low; pancreas produces insulin, glucose moves from the blood into the cells
            • in liver and muscle cells excess glucose is converted to glycogen for storage
          • when too low; pancreas produces hormone glucagon which causes glycogen to be converted into glucose
        • diabetes
          • type 1; pancreas fails to produce sufficient insulin leading to uncontrolled glucose levels
            • normally treated by insulin injection
          • type 2; obesity is a risk factor
            • body cells no longer respond to insulin
            • common treatments include changing diet and increasing exercise
      • body temperature
        • thermoregulato-ry centre
          • contains receptors sensitive to the temperature of the blood
        • skin
          • contains temperature recpetors
          • sends nervous impulses to the thermoregulato-ry centre
      • water levels
    • response to internal and external change


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