Holderness- hard and soft engineering

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  • Holderness- hard and soft engineering
    • Soft Engineering: schemes set up using knowledge of a river and its processes to reduce the effects of flooding
    • Causes- human:
      • coastal defences e.g. groyne at Mappleton stopping longshore drift moving down the coast= beaches are narrower and more easily eroded
    • Hard Engineering: man made structures built to control flow of river and reduce flooding
    • Causes-physical:
      • rock type: boulder clays=easily eroded
      • narrow beaches give less protection from the waves
      • prevailing wind= hits coast directly
      • waves have long fetch= very powerful
    • Responses
      • groynes: Mappleton
      • rock armour: Mapleton
      • sea walls and wooden groynes: Hornsea
    • Impacts
      • loss of land, building, roads
      • loss of coastal habitats and scenery
      • 80,000 sq-m of farmland lost per year= huge effect on farmer's livelihoods
      • slumping of material onto beach
      • business at risk and people may lose their jobs
      • roads at risk of falling into the sea

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