Health and Disease

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  • Created by: Sabrina
  • Created on: 20-02-14 13:25
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  • Health and Disease
    • Definitions
      • Disease: a condition that impairs the normal functioning of an organism.
      • Pathogen: an organism that can cause disease
      • Parasite: an organism that lives on or in another organism and causes damage to that organism.
      • Immune response: the specific response to a pathogen, which involves the action of lymphocytes and the production of antibodies.
      • Antigens: molecules that stimulate an immune response.
      • Antibodies: protein molecules that can identify and neutralise antigens.
    • Primary defences
      • Skin: physical barrier blocking pathogens and chemical barrier - producing antimicrobial chemicals, inhibit growth of pathogens, lowers pH.
      • Mucous membranes: secrete mucus, traps pathogens and contains antimicrobial enzymes.
    • Immune response
      • Primary: activates immune system. Slow process as there aren't any B lymphocytes that can make antibody needed to bind to it. eventually, blood produces enough of antibody - overcome infection - meanwhile person shows symptoms of disease. Both T and B lymphocytes produce memory cells. B cells will record specific antibodies needed to bind to antigen and T cells record specific antibodies needed to bind to antigen.
      • Secondary: same pathogen enters body - quicker response. B cells divide into plasma cells that produce the right antibody to the antigen. T cells divide into correct type of T cell carrying the antigen. Gets rid of pathogen before you experience any symptoms.
    • Passive immunity: given antibiotics made by a different organism.
      • Natural: Antibodies produced via the placenta on via breast milk.
      • artificial: Immunity provided by injection of antibodies made by another individual.
  • Primary: activates immune system. Slow process as there aren't any B lymphocytes that can make antibody needed to bind to it. eventually, blood produces enough of antibody - overcome infection - meanwhile person shows symptoms of disease. Both T and B lymphocytes produce memory cells. B cells will record specific antibodies needed to bind to antigen and T cells record specific antibodies needed to bind to antigen.

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