C2 - Giant compounds

This is a mind map with all the basic information for giant compounds, look at other resources for more detail.

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  • Created by: Katie
  • Created on: 19-05-13 15:36
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  • Giant Compounds
    • Giant Ionic
      • High melting point and high boiling point
      • It can conduct electricity in mollten or solution ONLY.
      • It has strong electrostatic forces.
      • An example is CuO.
    • Simple Covalent
      • An example would be CO2
      • It has low melting and boiling points.
      • It cannot conduct electricity.
      • It has weak intermolecular forces.
    • Giant Covalent
      • Examples would be diamond, silico dioxide, fullerene and graphite.
      • It has high melting and boiling points.
      • All examples cannot conduct electricity apart from graphite and fullerenes can but only in carbon nanotube.
        • Diamond
          • The atoms are arranged in a trigonal pryamidal.
          • Strong covalent bonds hold the atoms together.
          • High melting point, hardest known thing, excellent electrical and thermal insulator and it cannot conduct electricity.
        • Fullerene
          • Carbon atoms join together to make large cages of all sorts of shapes.
          • Built up of hexagonal rings of caarbon atoms and pentagonal.
          • Could soon be used to deliever drugs to the specific parts of the body.
          • Melting point around 600 degress celcius and can conduct electricity only if made out of nanotube.
        • Graphite
          • Contains giant layers of covalently bonded carbon atoms, however, there are no covalent bonds between layers, therefore, they can slide over each other, making it soft and slippery.
          • It can conduct electricity because of the delocalized electrons along its layers.
          • Used for pencil lead.
          • Bonded to three other carbon atoms, to form hexagons. The bonds holding the layers together are weak. The layer covalent bonds are strong.
        • Silicon Dioxide
          • It has a hard covalent structure.
          • Found in sand.
          • It doesn't conduct which makes it very useful in the electronics industry.
          • Each oxygen atom is covalently bonded to a silicon atom.
          • High melting and boiling points.
      • It has strong covalent bonds.
    • Giant Metallic
      • An example would be Cu.
      • It has high melting and boiling points.
        • This is due to positive metal ions being held together tightly by the sea of delocalized electrons.
      • Yes it can conduct electricity.
        • Due to delocalised electrons are free to move through the structure carrying charge.
      • It has delocalised electrons.
      • Can be easily shaped.
        • This is due to the layers of atoms/ions being able to easily slide over each other.
        • The positively charged atoms in metals are held together by delocalised electrons. These also allow the layers to slide over each other so that the metal's shape can be changed. They also allow the metal to conduct electricity and heat.
        • We could make braces out of nitinol as the brace makers would be able to shape it in the same shape as your teeth, and they are shape-memory alloys therefore they only have to obe shaped once.
    • Intermolecular Forces
      • Intermolecular forces - the attraction between the individual molecules in a covalently bonded substance.The forces between simple molecules are weak. These weak intermolecular forces explain why substances made of simple molecules have low boiling points.
      • Non-metals react together to form molecules which are held together by covalent bonds. These hold the atoms together very strongly. If these substances are made of simple molecules, they have low boiling and melting points. so at room temperature they often exist as gases and liquids or as liquids which melt relatively easily.
      • Simple molecules have no overall charge, so they cannot carry electrical charge. Therefore, substances made of simple molecules do not conduct electriciy.

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