German Foreign Policy Pre-WW1

Mind Map of the Foreign policy of Germany leading up to the beginning of World War One

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  • German Foreign Policy 1900-1914
    • Alliances
      • Germany in 1871 was a new country and used Realpolitik to contain its borders and gain Allies
      • Naturally Allied to Austria signing Triple Alliance in 1892 with Italy also
      • Didn't resign the Reassurance treaty with Russia in 1890
        • Russia moved towards France so Germany created the Schlieffen Plan to deal with a dual war
    • Balkans
      • Ottoman Empire Collapsing and Pan-Slavism threatened the Austrian empire
      • Serbia ceased trade aggrement with Austria
        • Austria Annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina and Russia forced to accept with German pressue
      • First Balkan War 1912
        • Balkan League declare war on Ottomans
        • Serbia invade Albania (Want access to the Sea) - This threatened Austria
          • Demands for an independent Albania supported by the Kaiser - Treaty of London ended conflict.
    • Germany and Britain
      • Flottenpolitik - 3 Naval Laws to rival the Royal Navy: (Germany had 6 Battleships compared to the British 33
        • 1st Naval Law 1898 - Build a Navy to protect the Colonies
        • 2nd Naval Law 1900 - Build 38 Battleships in 20 years
        • 3rd Naval law 1906 - Build Dreadnought class to match Britain and widen Kiel Canal
        • The Naval League and Kaiser pushed for this expansion and it created tensions with Britain
      • Britain had made overtures for an alliance but were pushed out because they didn't want to join the Triple alliance
      • Signed an Entente Cordial with France in 1904 and Russia 1907 - Made Germany fear encirclement
      • Upset by Krugar telegram incident 1896 and Telegraph affair in 1908
    • Morocco
      • First Moroccan Crisis 1905
        • Germany and France had interests in Morocco and Germany decided a conference on its future
        • Hoped to drive a wedge in new entente but failed to do so
        • The Algciras act decided on France and Germany to respect their mutual interest
        • Only Austria supported Germany - this made them fear isolation further
      • Second Moroccan Crisis - Agadir Crisis 1911
        • Riots in Fez saw French troops intervene and Germany claimed it was against Algciras Act
        • Sent in Gunboat Panther as a protest to Agadir and demanded French Congo in return for Morocco
        • War looked likely but failed to split Britain and France - they recieved only 2 small strips of the Congo
    • July Crisis
      • Franz Ferdinand assassinated by a Serbian terrorist organisation
      • Germany supported an Austrian Ultimatum - Blank Cheque of support
      • Austria didn't take part in British organised peace talks
      • Schlieffen plan put into action when Russia Mobalised
        • Invaded through Belgium -Britain then got involved
      • Invaded through Belgium -Britain then got involved
    • Weltpolitik
      • Pressure for Colonial League to pursue a more aggressive foreign policy
      • Built railway from Constan-tinople to Baghdad but it didn't really increase influence
      • Limited opportunity for colonial expansion


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