Extrusive Volcanic Landforms

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  • Created by: natatalie
  • Created on: 02-01-16 11:23
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  • Extrusive Volcanic Landforms
    • Minor Landforms
      • Fumarole
        • An opening near a volcano  which hot sulphurous gases come out of
        • May occur along tiny cracks or fissures
        • Last for decades or centuries
      • Solfatara
        • A volcanic crater emitting sulphurous gases
        • Very similar to fumaroles
          • Have higher concentration of sulphur
        • Pozzuoli, near Naples, Italy
      • Boiling Mud
        • Form when steam and gas rise to the surface under rainwater pools
        • The acidic gases break down the rocks forming clay
        • This produces a hot, muddy pool
        • Boiling Mud pools near Rotorua, Ne Zealand
      • Geysers
        • Discharges of water from vents in the earths surface
        • Caused by superheating of water in chambers beneath the ground surface, which pressurises, then explodes upwards
        • Old Faithful, Yellowstone National Park
    • Volcanoes
      • Ash and Cinder (Cinder cone)
        • Conical shape, steep sides
        • Commonly found on the flanks of other volcanoes
          • Nearly 100 on the flanks of Mauna Kea
        • Created in layers of cinders and ash
        • Paricutin, Mexico
          • Destroyed town on San Juan
          • Killed 3
      • Shield
        • Broad, low profile
          • Height 1/20th of their width
        • Basaltic lava
          • Divergent boundary
        • Mauna Loa, Hawaii
      • Composite (Stratovolcano)
        • Tall cone shaped volcano
        • Made up of layers of lava, ash, pumice and tephra
        • Andesitic magma
          • Plugs up the crater, makes it more explosive
        • Mt. St. Helens, USA
          • May 18th 1980
      • Caldera
        • Formed when the volcano collapses in on itself
        • Andesitic magma
        • Krakatoa
        • Chaiten, Chile
        • Crater lakes can form
      • Fissure
        • Occur at divergent boundaries
        • Magma rises through the cracks
        • Basaltic magma
        • Holohraun, Iceland
      • Acid/Dome
        • Mount Pelee, Martnique
        • Andesitic magma
        • Formed by repeated violent eruptions
        • Steep sided convex shape

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