exchanging substances

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  • exchanging substances
    • the greater the difference in concentrations the faster the rate of diffusion
    • exchange surfaces are adapted to maximise effectiveness
    • small intestines
      • villi; increase surface area
    • lungs
      • alveoli; increase surface area
      • good blood supply; to maintain concentration gradient
      • thin membranes; short diffusion distance
    • gills in fish
      • gill filaments an lamella; increase surface area
      • good blood supply; to maintain concentration gradient
      • thin membranes; short diffusion distance
    • root hair cell
      • thin membranes; increase surface area
    • leaves
      • large surface area
      • thin leaves for short diffusion path
      • stomata on lower surface
        • to let o2 and co2 in and out

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