Eukaryotes Organelle

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  • Eukaryotes Organelle
    • Animal cell
      • Cell Membrane
        • separates cell from surrounding cells/tissue fluid
        • allows different processes to occur in different organelle
      • Nucleus
        • contains DNA in the form of chromatin. chromatin is bound to proteins and used to code for other proteins
      • Nuclear Pore
        • gaps in the nuclear envelope that allows mRNA and ribosomes in and out the nucleus
      • Nucleolus
        • Inside the nucleus and contains DNA that codes for rRNA that codes for ribosomes and tRNA used in protein synthesis
      • Nuclear Envelope
        • Surrounds the nucleus and is a double membrane which separates the nucleus from cytoplasm
      • Mitochondria
        • Here respiration occurs and ATP is produced
        • has a double membrane -inner membrane is folded to increase surface are
        • the mitochondrial matrix is inside the inner membrane and contains enzymes, DNA filaments, granules, protein crystals, glycogen, and lipid
      • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
        • a series of membranes connected to the nuclear pore that form a transport system
        • the fluid filled space inside the inner membrane is called the cisternae
        • has ribosomes attached embedded in its membrane to carry out protein synthesis
        • packages, stores and transports proteins
      • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
        • Same as RER but doesn't have ribosomes
        • synthesise lipids + steroids and then package them  for transport
      • Golgi Body
        • modifies proteins and lipids from RER + ER and packages into secretory vesicles
        • producing secretory vesicles containing hydrolytic /digestive enzymes and producing glycoproteins
        • Secreting carbohydrates
      • Centrioles
        • organise the microtubules to form a spindle (during cell division)
        • found just outside the nucleus and migrate to the poles of the cell during division
      • lysosomes
        • secretory vesicles pinched off from golgi body containing digestive enzymes
        • Break down old organelles
        • Digest material taken in by endocytosis
        • Phagocytes engulf pathogens
        • Some cells secrete the enzymes extracellularly to digest food externally
    • Plant cell
      • has all the organelle from the animal cell but also has some extra organelle that the animal does not
      • Cellulose Cell wall (chitin in fungi)
        • high tensile strength as made of many cellulose molecules that join to form microfibrils that form fibres
        • Can stretch so supports cell when vacuole becomes full and cell becomes turgid
        • gaps between cellulose molecules that make the cell permeable and allow transport along the apoplast pathway
      • Chloroplast
        • Site of photosynthesis
        • contains photosynthetic pigments like chlorophyll to absorb light energy
        • lots of thylakoids that contain pigments to trap light energy
      • Vacuole
        • Contains cell sap
        • surrounded by its membrane the tonoplast
        • Used for storage and support
      • Plasmodesmata
        • Gaps between the cell wall and the membrane between neighbouring cells
        • Allows substances to pass through cells via symplast pathway


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