Essentialism and regenerationism

  • Created by: Julia
  • Created on: 17-05-19 15:39
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  • Essentialism & Regenerationism
    • Definition
      • Essentialism - women's natural and correct essence was to be a mother, in domestic sphere
      • Regenerationism - regeneration of Spain to a new nation following war
        • Change of national identity - change of women's identity too?
          • What is for the nation's best interest?
    • Pre 1900s
      • Set of knowledge and skills assigned to each gender
        • Emilia Pardo Bazan, 1890
        • Women sent to work in factories, replace men
      • Essentialism dominated
      • Fear of change
    • Second Republic 1931-39
      • First step away from essentialism
      • New constitutional laws: vote, labour reforms, secretary exams, associaciones obreras
        • Possibility of women being political and a mother
          • La ciudadania republicana
      • Women shouldn't lose their beauty: Maranon 1934
        • Mentalities didn't change with legislation
        • No need to modernise
    • Civil War 1936-39
      • Essential for political change
      • Upheaval of traditional norms
        • Women sent to work in factories, replace men
        • Baroja works as nurse
        • "La miliciana" women could be strong, take part in war effort
          • Also mothers sacrificing/mourning loss of children
      • Duty as wives and mothers to take care of families
        • "Quien vestiria a nuestros milicianos, soldados y marineros? Quien les preparia la comida? Quien cuidaria a sus hijos?"
        • "las mujeres se hallan ya tan sometidos al hombre como en cualquier pais burgues"
        • High mortality - needed to have babies
    • Franco 1939-75
      • Women returned to domestic sphere
        • Propaganda eg Cocina Corcho ad - la felicidad domestica
        • Lessons about diet and cooking
      • Step backwards for women
        • Women returned to domestic sphere
          • Propaganda eg Cocina Corcho ad - la felicidad domestica
          • Lessons about diet and cooking
      • Married women practically banned from work
      • Seccion Femenina 1934
        • Participation in political activities, teaching
        • Taught they were inferior sex and belonged in home
      • 1961 law - equal working/political rights
        • Not allowed to work in army or in dangerous jobs
    • Transition to democracy 1975-1992
      • 1978 constitutional law = equality
        • no discrimination, authorities had to facilitate equal participation
      • 1975 first feminist day
      • Freedom of speech
        • Vindicaciion feminista 1976-9

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