equations and calculations

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  • equations and calculations
    • ideal gas equation
      • pV=nRT
        • R=8.31J/K/mol
        • p=pressure (Pa)
        • V=volume (m3)
        • n=mole
        • T=temperature (K)
          • K=celcius +273
      • calculates number of moles in a certain volume of gas
    • percentage yield
      • never 100%
      • %yield=(actual yield/theoretical yield)x100
      • reasons for actual yield being less than theoretical yield.
        • incomplete reactions
        • some chemicals are lost e.g. left on filter paper
    • atom economy
      • the measure of the efficiency of a reaction
      • (mass of desired products/ total mass of reactants or products) x100
      • companies try to use reactions with high atom economies because:
        • better for the environment due to less waste
        • more efficient use of raw materials and so more sustainable
        • less expensive
    • molecular and empirical formula
      • empirical formula is the simplest whole number ratio of atoms
        • 1. find moles in 100g of atom = abundance /Ar
          • 2. divide each number of moles by the mallets number of moles
      • molecular formula is the actual whole number ratio of atoms


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