Enzymes

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  • Enzymes
    • shape
      • vital for function
        • High temperatures change the shape
    • PH Values
      • Different enzymes work best at different Ph
      • Stomach produces hydrochloric acid
        • works most effectively at acid conditions
      • Liver produces Bile
        • stored in gall bladder before being released into small intestine
          • Bile neutralizes the acid that was added to the food by the stomach
            • Provides ALKALINE conditions so enzymes work effectively
    • Some work outside body cells
      • Digestive emzymes
        • Produced by cells in glands and in lining of gut
          • enymes pass out of cells into the gut.
            • Catalyse the breakdown of large molecules into smaller ones
    • Amylase
      • produced in salivary glands pancreas and small intestine
        • Breaks down Starch to suger
          • in mouth and small intestine
    • Protease
      • produced by stomach pancreas and small intestine
        • Breaks down Proteins to amino acids
          • in stomach and small intestine
    • Lipase
      • produced by pancreas and small intestine
        • Catalyse the breakdown of lipids (fats and oils)  into fatty acid and glycerol
          • in small intestine
    • Some microorganisms produce enzymes that pass out of the cells
      • Used in home
        • biological detergents
          • may contain protein digesting and fat digesting enzymes
          • more effective at low temperatures than other detergents
      • Used in Industry
        • proteases
          • pre-digest protein in baby foods
        • carbohydrases
          • convert starch into sugar syrup
            • eg sport drinks
        • Isomerase
          • convert glucose syrup to fructose syrup
            • much sweeter so can be used in smaller quantities in slimming products
        • enzymes bring out reactions at normal temperatures and pressures that would otherwise require expensive, energy demanding equipment
        • most enzymes are denatured at high temperatures and are costly to produce

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