B4 - Enzymes

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  • Enzymes
    • Enzymes are proteins produced by living things
      • Living things have lots of chemical reactions going on inside them all the time
      • These reactions need to be carefully controlled
        • To get the right amounts of substances
      • living things produce enzymes
        • Enzymes Speed up chemical reactions
    • Enzymes are specific
      • 1. Chemical reactions involve things being split apart or joined together
      • 2. Substrates is a molecule that is changed in a reaction
      • 3. Every Enzyme has an active site that a substrate will join onto
      • 4. Enzymes only speed up one reaction. This is because a substrate has to be the correct shape to fit into the active site
    • Enzymes need the right temperature and pH
      • If you change the temperature, you change the rate of reaction
      • At first a higher temperature will increase the rate
        • However if it gets too hot some of the bonds holding the enzymes will break
          • This changes the active sites shape and the substrate will no longer fit
            • when this happens to an enzyme is is known as becoming denatured
      • Enzymes also have an optimum pH that they wok best at
        • if the pH is too high or low it interferes with the bonds holding the enzymes together
          • This changes the shape of the active site and denatures the enzyme


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